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20240205-1-2

Prof. Janelle YORKE received the HKSAR Global STEM Professorship

Prof. Janelle YORKE, Chair Professor of Nursing and Head, School of Nursing, has been awarded the HKSAR Global STEM Professorship. She is the first nursing researcher in Hong Kong who has gained such an honour.   The Global STEM Professorship is awarded to accomplished scholars in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM). Prof. YORKE’s achievement is a recognition from the HKSAR Government to the Faculty and the School of Nursing in the contributions to healthcare and nursing development.     As a Global STEM Professor, Prof. YORKE will be provided with research personnel and space to establish a Digital Oncology Care Enhancement Laboratory that will work towards establishing an electronic-patient-reported outcomes measures (ePROMs) programme for real-time patient monitoring and a suite of linked digital self-management interventions. The work will involve original research alongside real-world implementation into clinical practice, to inform best practice and improve patient outcomes.   We extend our heartfelt congratulations to Prof. YORKE. Her contributions and expertise will undoubtedly further elevate our research and nurture talent to continue to develop the School.   

5 Feb, 2024

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PolyU researchers’ innovative Music Therapy System for older adults wins CES 2024 Innovation Award for impactful aging technology

A ground-breaking therapeutic music-with-movement system invented by researchers of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) has won a prestigious global consumer product award in the ‘Accessibility & Aging Tech’ category at the Consumer Electronics Show (CES) 2024 Innovation Awards. Being the only Hong Kong educational institution honoured with this award serves as a testament to the exceptional impact of this music-with-movement intervention on older adults and their caregivers. An integral part of the CES, the annual CES® Innovation Award recognizes outstanding innovation in design, evaluating products based on engineering quality, aesthetics and design, practical value, uniqueness and their impact on quality of life. Dr Daphne CHEUNG, Associate Professor of the PolyU School of Nursing, led the project that developed the “Music-with-Movement System for Older Adults.” The research team merged an existing therapeutic music intervention system with advances in medical research and engineering technology for the ageing population. This ground-breaking system empowers caregivers and staff working in the elderly care sector to effectively and efficiently engage older adults in music intervention. Prof. Christopher CHAO, Vice President (Research and Innovation) of PolyU congratulated the team and said “The research team is well-deserving of this award for their trailblazing work in social technology innovation for interactive music intervention for older adults. This recognition serves as a testament to our commitment to multidisciplinary research with the aim of bringing healing and fostering meaningful connections within the elderly population. PolyU’s academic and research expertise in transformative knowledge and technology remains at the forefront of innovation, providing impactful solutions for the betterment of human well-being.” The music-with movement system combines many elements including songs, Augmented Reality (AR) interactive games and motion sensors in a tablet, a game engineer and a cloud-based management platform. Integrating oldies music with motion sensors and AR makes it the first of its kind in music interventions. The interactive, cognitively stimulating musical games aim to maintain the cognitive and social stimulation levels of older adults. The user-friendly design of this therapeutic programme also helps alleviate issues caused by social isolation. Dr Cheung said “It’s my greatest honour to receive this award in recognition of the application of our research into aging technology, a key focus in our work related to the increasingly aging population. The music-with-movement programme reinforces sustainable adoption among old adults for their consistent engagement and facilitates effective intervention and communication.” While the music-with-movement programme was developed for people in Hong Kong with dementia, it later came to involve family caregivers as a dyadic intervention. Integrating current information and communication technology as implementation strategies for music intervention builds effective communication and collaboration and more effective bonding among old adults, caregivers, staff working in elderly centres and health professionals. The upcoming CES will be held in Las Vegas, the United States from 9th to 12th January 2024. The PolyU delegation will showcase a number of innovative projects, aiming to connect with technology prospectors for potential collaborations. CES is one of the world's largest consumer technology trade fairs, bringing together innovators, entrepreneurs and thought leaders from around the world. It provides a platform to showcase cutting-edge technologies and breakthrough research.

5 Dec, 2023

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Healthy Ageing Conference 2023: Advancing Healthy Ageing in the Western Pacific, Moving Forward with the UN Decade of Healthy Ageing

Population ageing is a pressing priority in the Western Pacific region, home to one of the world's largest and fastest-growing elderly populations. Recognizing the significance of this issue, the World Health Organization (WHO) has taken the lead in developing an action plan on healthy ageing for the region, aligned with the United Nations (UN) Decade of Healthy Ageing (2021–2030). In line with these efforts, the Healthy Ageing Conference 2023 was successfully held in Hong Kong on 26-27 October 2023. The conference, organized by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Community Health Services, School of Nursing of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU), and co-organized by the Department of Health of The Government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), PolyU Research Institute of Smart Ageing, and PolyU Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, served as a crucial platform to address the challenges and explore innovative solutions for healthy ageing in the region.   The conference's opening ceremony marked its official commencement, with esteemed speakers delivering their addresses. Professor Jin-guang TENG, President of PolyU, welcomed participants and emphasized the pivotal role of the conference in realizing the United Nations' vision of healthy ageing. “The conference aimed to address the multifaceted factors influencing the well-being of older individuals and their families. It provided a platform to showcase cutting-edge gerontechnological innovations, discuss the latest interventions and advancements in epidemiology, and identify comprehensive strategies for implementing the WHO's action items.” Professor TENG remarked.    Mr. ZHANG Hui, Counselor (DG level) from the Department of Ageing and Health, National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China, emphasized healthy ageing was the least costly and most effective means and ways to cope with population ageing. The Chinese government had been positively responding to the United Nations Decade of Healthy Ageing (2021-2030). Mr. ZHANG highlighted the significance of collaboration and knowledge exchange between Mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macao in various aspects such as scientific research, technologies, projects, standards, norms, talents, services, and industries related to healthy ageing and elderly care. Mr. ZHANG Hui expressed, "The National Health Commission will continue to strengthen exchanges and cooperation with Hong Kong and Macao in the field of healthy aging, learn from each other and complement each other's advantages."   Professor Chung-mau LO, Secretary of Health, Health Bureau of the HKSAR Government, emphasized that the government acknowledges the significant challenges posed by the rapidly ageing population. The government is committed to implementing a comprehensive structural reform that will transition the healthcare system from a treatment-oriented approach to a prevention-focused approach, and shift the service delivery from hospital-based to community-based settings. Professor LO stated, "Our ultimate goal is to enhance the overall health of the population, ensure accessible and integrated healthcare services, and establish a sustainable healthcare system."   Dr. Ronald LAM, Director of Health from the Department of Health of the HKSAR Government, reiterated the unwavering commitment of the HKSAR Government to promote healthy ageing.  Dr. LAM emphasized that a comprehensive policy on healthy ageing has been formulated based on the recommendations of the Elderly Commission. Various programmes aimed at promoting the well-being of older adults are being implemented by the Department of Health, including health education for all age groups, caregiver training, and supports the revitalization of primary healthcare services. “Meeting the challenges of Silver Tsunami would require not only cross-sectoral, but also international collaboration. Let’s join hands for the health and well-being of our senior citizens.” said Dr. LAM.    Dr. Hiromasa OKAYASU, Director of the Division of Healthy Environments and Populations at the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office (WPRO), reaffirmed that the conference offered an exceptional platform for policymakers, stakeholders, practitioners, researchers, and academics to come together and address the pressing trends and challenges related to population ageing in the region. Dr. OKAYASU stated, "The Hong Kong Polytechnic University's School of Nursing made significant efforts to facilitate a wide range of discussions, encompassing research and practical ideas, all with the aim of enhancing healthy ageing."   Professor Angela Yee-man LEUNG, Director of the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Community Health Services, School of Nursing at PolyU, shed light on the prevalent issue of intrinsic capacity decline among community-dwelling older adults in Hong Kong. “Efforts have been made to promote the adoption of the World Health Organization's integrated care for older people (ICOPE) Framework in Hong Kong. This includes the provision of a comprehensive training package and experience-sharing symposium, with the aim of facilitating the effective implementation of the ICOPE approach. Notably, we are pleased to witness the successful trial run of the ICOPE model by Wong Tai Sin District Health Centre.” said Professor LEUNG.    Furthermore, a series of webinars titled 'Embracing Ageing in the Western Pacific' has been regularly organized since 2020. These webinars create a valuable platform for experts in the region to exchange knowledge and ideas regarding emerging trends, best practices, and innovative solutions that promote healthy ageing. Professor LEUNG added, "We are delighted to foster a collaborative environment that facilitates knowledge sharing and encourages advancements in the field of healthy ageing."   The Healthy Ageing Conference 2023 represented a significant milestone in the pursuit of healthy ageing. By fostering collaboration, exchanging views and ideas, and sharing innovative approaches, the conference laid a solid foundation for implementing the Regional Action Plan on Healthy Ageing. Ultimately, the goal is to realize the visions outlined in the UN Decade of Healthy Ageing (2021–2030) and create a healthier, more inclusive future for older individuals and their communities.   About World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Community Health Services, School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University The World Health Organization (WHO) has designated PolyU’s School of Nursing as a WHO Collaborating Centre (WHO CC) for Community Health Services since December 2007. Through implementing the WHO’s mandate, the School has been playing a proactive role in strengthening evidence-based community health services and improving the health outcomes of local, regional and global populations.   In 2019, The WHO re-designated the School’s WHO CC for Community Health Services with the focus that aligns with one of the WHO current strategic priorities - Healthy Ageing. The Centre is committed to the objectives of identifying crucial indicators of ageing and health within the region, actively advocating for and implementing the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines on Integrated Care for Older People (ICOPE), and establishing a platform for interdisciplinary collaborations between healthcare professionals and academia to initiate projects focused on promoting healthy ageing.     About the Healthy Ageing Conference 2023: The Healthy Ageing Conference 2023 was an international event organised by the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Community Health Services, School of Nursing of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU), and co-organised by the Department of Health of the Government of Hong Kong SAR, PolyU Research Institute of Smart Ageing, and PolyU Department of Rehabilitation Sciences.  The conference aims to address the key trends and challenges associated with population ageing in the Western Pacific region, promote healthy ageing, and facilitate the implementation of actions in response to the UN Decade of Healthy Ageing.   The Healthy Ageing Conference 2023 featured a comprehensive program encompassing a wide range of topics including healthcare innovations, social engagement, policy development, and technological advancements. Participants engaged in thought-provoking discussions, interactive workshops, and networking opportunities, fostering collaborations and inspiring initiatives to address the multifaceted aspects of healthy ageing.   For more information about WHO's work on the UN Decade of Healthy Ageing (2021–2030), please visit the official website: [https://www.who.int/initiatives/decade-of-healthy-ageing].

30 Oct, 2023

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PolyU nursing scholars awarded prestigious UGC Teaching Award

The Internationalisation at Home (IaH) team from the School of Nursing of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) received the University Grants Committee (UGC) Teaching Award in the Collaborative Teams category for 2023 in recognition of their achievements in pioneering the adoption of novel IaH activities in nursing education. This new education model goes beyond conventional clinical practices to develop students’ cultural awareness and global competence. The Award was presented by Mr Tim LUI, Chairman of UGC at a presentation ceremony held today. Prof. Wing-tak WONG, Deputy President and Provost of PolyU congratulated the team, and said, “PolyU is committed to pursuing excellence and impact through its education and research endeavours, while nurturing students to be global-minded leaders. The five members of IaH are enthusiastic proponents of innovative teaching and learning, thus helping to foster professionals who are ready to cope with multi-cultural contexts and the growing demand for healthcare. The team has also extended the impact of IaH to collaborating universities worldwide. We warmly congratulate the team on their accomplishments.” The IaH team, led by Prof. Engle Angela CHAN, Interim Head and Professor of the School of Nursing, included Dr Arkers Kwan-ching WONG, Assistant Professor; Mr Timothy Kam-hung LAI, Associate Professor of Practice; Dr Betty Pui-man CHUNG, Assistant Professor of Practice; and Dr Doris Yuet-lan LEUNG, Adjunct Assistant Professor. To prepare nursing students for their profession in Hong Kong’s culturally diverse society with its increasing healthcare demands, the team has adopted IaH activities in the BS (Hons) in Nursing since 2015. It serves as an alternative to the offline “overseas exchange” learning experience in developing students’ cultural awareness. The team has worked closely with overseas institutions, including Malmo University in Sweden and La Trobe University in Australia, to design a series of online student-led group activities for exchanging insights on major challenges in nursing. The IaH has additionally provided a platform for cultural exchange activities to continue and cultivate talents with global vision during the pandemic. The School of Nursing of PolyU has also integrated IaH activities into a Service-Learning subject, a summer exchange programme and collaborative projects with local and international peers designed to enhance students’ global learning experience, impacting over 1,100 undergraduate and postgraduate students globally. With nine journal articles published and seven presentations at international and local conferences on their IaH work, the team hopes to expand the impact of IaH across multiple disciplines and will integrate virtual reality technology to provide students with an immersive learning experience. Prof. Engle Angela Chan is honoured to receive the award, and said, “I am pleased that our team’s work has been recognised by the UGC. My heartfelt gratitude goes to my teammates and the University for their effort and support. Both drive us to realise our shared vision of providing high-quality training and learning experiences for nursing students. IaH activities focusing on peer learning help students enhance their global competence and ability to communicate with culturally diverse patients by gaining in-depth understanding of clinical practices worldwide through bilateral exchange. We look forward to the wider adoption of IaH activities in collaborative partners to cultivate future nursing professionals.” The UGC Teaching Award was introduced to honour academics of the UGC-funded universities for their outstanding teaching performance and achievements, as well as their leadership in and scholarly contributions to teaching and learning within and outside their campuses. The Award consists of three categories, namely General Faculty Members, Early Career Faculty Members, and Collaborative Teams. The last is given in recognition of outstanding interdisciplinary pedagogical work.     *** END ***  

27 Sep, 2023

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SN launched the first e-painting platform for caregivers in Hong Kong

School of Nursing of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has developed the Hong Kong first e-painting platform for caregivers, which allows them to use computers or electronic devices for drawing. This platform aims to improve caregivers’ mental health, and let them connect and communicate with other caregivers in Hong Kong.   Click here for the full article in Chinese.    

28 Aug, 2023

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SN innovations received the Smart Ageing Awards

Dr Justina Liu and Dr Daphne Cheung of the Healthy Ageing through Innovations Areas of Excellence, received Smart Ageing Awards from the Golden Age Foundation for recognizing the impacts created by their innovative products funded by ITF for Better Living and other funding sources. Dr Justina Liu’s team and Pok Oi Hospital invented the first Immersive Virtual-Reality dual-task training system that simultaneously provides motor and cognitive training to older adults with cognitive frailty. As of today, this device has trained more than three hundred older adults to improve their health. Justina and her team obtained the Silver Prize of the Smart Ageing Award. (Hong Kong Short-term Patent: 32023070917.4) Dr Daphne Cheung’s team developed the Music-with-Movement system for older adults with cognitive impairment to improve their cognitive and psychosocial well-being. More than seven hundred people benefited from this project, and more than 150 staff/nursing students were trained to use the system. This product received a Merit Prize. (Hong Kong Short-term Patent: 32023075903.9)

15 Aug, 2023

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Food Angel turns delivery female workers into community health workers with the support of nurses and mHealth

Dr Arkers Wong*, Assistant Professor, received a donation of over HK$11 million from the Li Ka Shing Foundation to carry out a project aimed at training food delivery female workers from Food Angel (惜食堂) to perform basic health check for older adults living alone in the community.   After the training, the delivery female workers will be equipped with basic health knowledge and the ability to measure physical vital signs, including blood oxygen level, blood pressure, and pulse and pain indices of around 100 older adults when they visit them to deliver meals. The health data collected by the delivery workers will be uploaded to the mHealth monitoring platform, developed by Dr Wong’s research team. Registered nurses (RNs) access to the platform to evaluate the health status of the older adults. When needed, a registered nurse will give in-depth personal care and interventions via the mHealth app to the older adult. Referrals to allied health professionals or social workers can also be made by the RNs for early interventions.  The team hope that this FIRST-of-its-kind grassroots community health model in combination with Health-Social Partnership will provide scientific research evidence for the Government to consider introducing the mHealth app and the service model to the community as a way to strengthen primary health care.  The mHealth app, is a pilot health management mobile app with an interactive nurse support function. The app enables nurses to monitor users’ health status and allow users’ to communicate with nurses when they have health concerns. Research findings released by the team in March 2023 showed that the use of the app for three to six months among the older adults resulted in a significant increase in self-efficacy, a significant decrease in depression level, a reduction in the use of medical services, and an improvement in the quality of life.  Click here to learn more about the project.    *Team members PolyU’s School of Nursing: Dr Arkers Wong, Principal Investigator; Co-Principal Investigator, Prof. Frances Wong, Chair Professor of Advanced Nursing Practice & Associate Dean (FHSS)]; Dr Cheung Kin, Dr Eva Ho & Dr Jed Montayre, Associate Professors; Dr Jonathan Bayuo, Postdoctoral Fellow.  PolyU’s School of Optometry: Dr Jinxiao Lian, Assistant Professor.  

26 Jul, 2023

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PolyU and Fire Services Department sign MoU to nurture young generations

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) and the Fire Services Department (FSD) signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) today to establish a collaborative partnership in jointly organising a training course on fundamentals of emergency care and critical response by the School of Nursing of PolyU and the Fire and Ambulance Services Academy (FASA). The course will equip students with the skills and knowledge of the application of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillators (AEDs), as well as fire safety measures and emergency evacuation procedures. The aim is to further strengthen the awareness of community emergency preparedness in a bid to enhance the efficiency of life-saving treatments. The School of Nursing at PolyU has been pursuing academic excellence of practical value in nursing and healthcare services, while the FSD has long been formulating and implementing strategies on community emergency preparedness. The collaboration will help the FSD to further promote the “three basic skills on emergency preparedness" (namely Extinguish and Prevent Fire, Self-help and Help Others and Escape and Evacuate) in the community and also foster the culture of "self-help and help others" in the wider community. Witnessed by Prof. David SHUM, Dean of the Faculty of Health and Social Sciences of PolyU, and Mr. Andy YEUNG, Director of FSD, the MoU was signed by Prof. Engle Angela CHAN, Interim Head of the School of Nursing of PolyU, and Mr. YIU Men-yeung, the Commandant of the FASA. Prof. David Shum said, “We thank FSD for its unwavering support for the training course. The collaborative course will be included as a credit-bearing course in the curriculum of General Studies for all PolyU students in meeting the needs of the community. The course would also enhance students’ vigilance and problem-solving abilities and cultivate a spirit of mutual assistance and care among them.”     Mr. Andy Yeung said, “We hope the training course would enhance students' competence and confidence in saving patients from cardiac arrest, and strengthen the support for local patients with cardiac arrest to receive timely rescue in the community so as to increase their chances of survival. The MoU also signifies the sustainable co-operation of both sides in providing diversified learning opportunities in different aspects to nurture more outstanding young generations in Hong Kong.”  

7 Jun, 2023

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PolyU’s School of Nursing hosted the 5th Hong Kong Innovation Day cum Innovation Awards Competition successfully

The School of Nursing of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) hosted the 5th Hong Kong Innovation Day cum Innovation Awards Competition successfully yesterday on PolyU’s campus. The event provided a platform for entrepreneurs, healthcare and social care professionals, and scholars to showcase new innovations aimed at improving the delivery of healthcare and social services. The competition this year received strong support from the academic and healthcare sectors, with 15 teams selected as finalists to compete for the Innovation Awards. The jury panel was comprised of doctors and professors from universities. A Social Innovation category was included in the competition, demonstrating PolyU’s concern for the development of social services. The winning team will be awarded entry to the Global Healthcare Innovation Day to be held in Brighton in the UK later this year, where they will compete with other champions from different parts of the world for the Innovation for Health Award of Excellence. Speaking at the opening ceremony of the Hong Kong Innovation Day, Prof. Engle Angela CHAN, Professor and Interim Head of The School of Nursing of PolyU, said, “There has been an increasing demand for networking among entrepreneurs, scholars, and healthcare and social care professionals to promote innovation and explore collaboration opportunities. The significance of the Hong Kong Innovation Day has grown noticeably over the years and this is reflected in the high number of entries and participants.”   Results of the 5th Hong Kong Innovation Day cum Innovation Awards Competition: Champion Project Title: Liverscan: Palm-sized Real-time B-mode Ultrasound Imaging Guided System for Liver Fibrosis and Steatosis Assessment Project Leader: Prof. ZHENG Yong-ping, Henry G. Leong Professor in Biomedical Engineering, Chair Professor of Biomedical Engineering, Director of Research Institute for Smart Ageing and Director of Jockey Club Smart Ageing Hub, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University   First Runner-up Project Title: Robotic Surgery Remote Mentoring via AR with 3D Scene Streaming and Hand Interaction Project Leader: Dr DOU Qi, Assistant Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong   Second Runner-up Project Title: A novel green wide-spectrum antiviral/antimicrobial material: Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) oligomer Project Leader: Dr ZHANG Ziheng, Chief Executive Officer, Ecolar Technology Limited   The Best Social Innovation Award Project Title: Virtual Hospital – an immersive virtual reality game to strengthen nursing education Project Leader: Dr Kitty CHAN, Senior Teaching Fellow, The School of Nursing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University   The School of Nursing of PolyU has been hosting the Hong Kong Innovation Day cum Innovation Awards Competition in alternative years since 2013. For more information, please visit https://sn.polyu.edu.hk/hkia/

19 Apr, 2023

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PolyU research shows mHealth mobile app with interactive nursing support enhances elderly health management

Primary healthcare is an integral part of the entire healthcare system. The Government put forward the Primary Healthcare Blueprint (the Blueprint) at the end of last year, which proposed prevention-oriented and community-based strategies to improve the overall health of the general public. The School of Nursing of The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU) has launched a pilot mHealth health management mobile app with interactive nursing support. Research data shows the app empowers the elderly to monitor their chronic diseases and mental health conditions. An interdisciplinary team formed by healthcare professionals and social workers offer support to the elderly, such as providing timely medical referrals, thereby reducing the unplanned use of health services and enhancing elderly health management. The mHealth app is jointly developed by The School of Nursing of PolyU and a local telecommunications company to help monitor the health condition of the elderly. When an abnormal vital sign (such as blood pressure, or blood glucose level) is detected, a registered nurse will be notified via the app and will contact the elderly person to understand their health condition.  Another highlight of the mHealth app is the 24-hour nurse interaction function. By tapping one button in the app, the elderly can make a video call to a registered nurse to support and evaluate their health and mental condition. The research team, led by Dr Arkers WONG, Assistant Professor of The School of Nursing of PolyU, recruited participants from five elderly service centres of the Hong Kong Lutheran Social Service.  A total of 221 elderly aged 60 or above with at least one chronic condition(s) (including hypertension, pain or diabetes) participated in the study. The study found that there was a significant increase in self-efficacy, a significant decrease in the level of depression, a reduction in the use of medical services, and an improvement in the quality of life* in physical aspects, after the elderly used the app for three to six months. Hong Kong has one of the most rapidly ageing populations in the world. The number of Hospital Authority patients with chronic diseases is projected to reach three million in the coming decade by 2039, which will bring a heavy burden to the public healthcare system. Dr Arkers WONG said, “There was a significant reduction in the unplanned use of health services and unplanned visits to general practitioners by 76% and 72% respectively, after the elderly used the mHealth app with nursing support for three months. This illustrates that the approach of combining nursing support and digital technology can relieve the pressure brought about by the rising demand for public medical services, helping to achieve the goals set out in the Blueprint to improve the overall health condition of the elderly.” The research team recommends promoting the use of digital technology for health management among the elderly, and strengthening health-social collaboration on digital platforms. The research and development team will enhance the app, adding functions such as artificial intelligence, and incorporating content that is more suitable for the needs and preferences of the elderly so that they will continue to use the app, which will contribute to the goal of reducing public medical expenses. *Physical component summary of quality of life includes four domains, which are general health, physical functioning (e.g., climbing several floors, moderate activities), role activities (limited kinds of activities), and bodily pain.

7 Mar, 2023

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