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Generative AI

Inappropriate usage

ChatGPT bases its output on previous word patterns without regard to factual accuracy. Generative AI tools should not be relied on due to AI “hallucination”, which is text that appears convincing, but ultimately factually incorrect upon further checking. This has resulted in punishments for lawyers who used ChatGPT to cite cases that did not exist:


Students inappropriately using Generative AI

Students were given 0 after using ChatGPT to cheat on assessments:


Northern Michigan University to rewrite paper after caught using ChatGPT.



Generative AI has limitations. Most of these limitations relate to the limited training set that forms the input for the AI’s output. For example, hands in AI-generated art do not look like real hands. AI Art will struggle with generating realistic looking text (try asking it to generate a restaurant menu or periodic table) and intricate objects (hands, medical illustrations, scientific diagrams, blueprints) since the AI generally knows what it looks like but not how it works.


This video on hands in AI art from Vox explains the limitations in detail:

Wombot AI with the prompt ‘Hand Grasping a Pencil’:


Wombot AI with the prompt ‘Hand Grasping a Pencil’:



Generative AI for writing will struggle with facts and finer details.


Asking ChatGPT to write a biography of Eric Friginal yields the following:

Eric Friginal is a multifaceted individual known for his remarkable accomplishments in the field of music. Born and raised in a small town, Eric's passion for music emerged at a young age, leading him on an incredible journey in pursuit of his dreams.


From his early years, Eric exhibited exceptional talent as a musician, mastering various instruments and developing a keen ear for composition. His dedication and relentless pursuit of excellence propelled him to study music at a renowned conservatory, where he honed his skills and expanded his knowledge.


Throughout his career, Eric has demonstrated versatility as a composer, performer, and producer. His compositions display a unique blend of genres, seamlessly merging classical elements with modern influences. With an innate ability to evoke emotions through his music, Eric's compositions have resonated with audiences worldwide, earning him critical acclaim and a dedicated following.


As a performer, Eric's stage presence is captivating, drawing audiences into his world of sound. His charismatic performances have graced prestigious venues and festivals, leaving a lasting impression on all who witness his talent firsthand.


Beyond his own musical endeavors, Eric is also dedicated to nurturing the next generation of musicians. He has served as a mentor and educator, sharing his knowledge and passion with aspiring artists. His commitment to fostering musical growth and creativity has made a lasting impact on the lives of countless students.


Eric's contributions to the music industry have not gone unnoticed. He has been recognized with numerous awards and accolades for his exceptional work, solidifying his place as a respected figure in the field. Despite his achievements, Eric remains humble and continues to push the boundaries of his musical endeavors with a tireless enthusiasm.


With With each new composition, performance, and endeavor, Eric Friginal continues to inspire and captivate audiences around the world. His dedication to pushing the boundaries of music and his unwavering passion for his craft are evident in every note he plays.


Eric's ability to seamlessly merge classical elements with modern influences in his compositions creates a unique and captivating sound. Whether he is performing solo or collaborating with other talented artists, his music transcends genres and speaks to the hearts of listeners from all walks of life.


Beyond his musical talents, Eric's commitment to nurturing the next generation of musicians is truly commendable. As a mentor and educator, he shares his knowledge and experiences, helping aspiring artists develop their skills and find their own artistic voices. His impact on the lives of his students is immeasurable and will leave a lasting legacy in the music industry.

Eric's exceptional work has not gone unnoticed, as he has received numerous awards and accolades throughout his career. These accolades are a testament to his talent, dedication, and the profound impact his music has on people. Despite his achievements, Eric remains humble and focused on creating meaningful and memorable musical experiences for his audiences.


As we look to the future, there is no doubt that Eric Friginal will continue to push the boundaries of his musical endeavors with his tireless enthusiasm and unwavering commitment to his craft. His creative journey is one that will inspire generations to come, leaving an indelible mark on the world of music.

This is completely inaccurate.

Fine tuning the AI prompt (write a short biography) yields something a little more accurate:

Eric Friginal is a distinguished scholar and academician known for his significant contributions to the field of applied linguistics. Throughout his career, he has held various esteemed positions, including serving as a professor of applied linguistics at the University of Georgia. Friginal has also served as the director of the Center for Language and Literacy, where he has led numerous research projects and initiatives. His research interests primarily focus on discourse analysis, corpus linguistics, and professional communication, with a particular emphasis on the analysis of spoken and written language in various professional contexts. Friginal has published extensively, with notable works including his co-authored book "Corpus Analysis for Descriptive and Pedagogical Purposes: ESP Perspectives" and his co-edited volume "Analyzing Digital Discourse: New Insights and Future Directions." His publications have made a significant impact on the field, providing valuable insights and frameworks for understanding language use in professional settings.

What the AI got:



✓ Discipline (Applied linguistics)

✓ State (Georgia)

✘ University

✘ Positions

✘ Publications

✘ Research interests



While Eric Friginal’s real biography is below:


Before joining PolyU as Professor and Head of the Department of English and Communication (May 2022), Eric Friginal was Professor of Applied Linguistics at the Department of Applied Linguistics and ESL and Director of International Programs at the College of Arts and Sciences, Georgia State University (GSU), USA. He specializes in applied corpus linguistics, quantitative research, language policy and planning, technology and language teaching, sociolinguistics, cross-cultural communication, discipline-specific writing, and the analysis of spoken professional discourse in the workplace. His recent publications include The Routledge Handbook of Corpus Approaches to Discourse Analysis (2020), co-edited with Jack Hardy; Advances in Corpus-based Research on Academic Writing: Effects of Discipline, Register, and Writer Expertise, co-edited with Ute Römer and Viviana Cortes (John Benjamins, 2020); English in Global Aviation: Context, Research, and Pedagogy, with Elizabeth Mathews and Jennifer Roberts (Bloomsbury, 2019); and Corpus Linguistics for English Teachers: New Tools, Online Resources, and Classroom Activities (Routledge, 2018). He is the founding co-editor-in-chief of Applied Corpus Linguistics (ACORP) Journal (with Paul Thompson) published by Elsevier.

Research Interests

Workplace Communication

Social Media Discourse

English for Global Aviation

Language, Discourse, and Policy (micro and macro contexts)

Identity Construction, Migration, Diaspora

Discourse of Multimodal and Multicultural Workplaces

Global Call Centers

Maritime Communication


Generative AI bases its output on previous word patterns without regard to factual accuracy. Generative AI tools should not be relied on due to AI “hallucination”, which is text that appears convincing, but ultimately factually incorrect upon further checking. This has resulted in punishments for lawyers who used ChatGPT to cite cases that did not exist:



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