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The guides have been written by the ELC to help you to become familiar with academic referencing conventions and to reference correctly in your work. Most departments at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University use one of four referencing styles. Choose the appropriate referencing style on the left as advised by your programme leader.

IEEE Referencing Guide

The IEEE referencing system FH_17

Referencing is a standard practice for acknowledging information sources in academic writing at university. Whenever you write an assignment that requires you to find and use information, you are expected to reference all the sources of information and ideas included in your writing.

This webpage provides guidelines for using the IEEE referencing system. There are two components to an IEEE reference:

  1. an in-text reference in the body of your assignment:
    Chan [1] explores a range of themes and ideas ...
  2. full reference details in your reference list:
    [1] D. P. Chan, Business in China. Hong Kong: Dragon Press, 2011.
Part 1 Basic rules

Why do we reference?

Most academic assignments require wide reading so that previous and current thinking about a particular topic can be identified. It is important to show your reader that you have sought out expert, reliable sources to help support and develop your thinking on your topic. The referencing in your assignment should:

  • demonstrate good research practice
  • show the range of ideas and approaches you have found and thought about
  • acknowledge where those ideas came from
  • tell your reader where they can locate the sources you have used

Referencing also helps you to avoid plagiarism. If you present someone else's ideas, and/or the way they express their ideas, as if they are your own work, you are committing plagiarism. Plagiarism can be unintentional due to poor referencing, but the consequences are always serious. Accurate referencing helps you to avoid this.

1. When to reference

Every time you include someone else's words, ideas or information in your assignment, an in-text reference must be provided. Insert an in-text reference whenever you:

  • paraphrase someone else's ideas in your own words
  • summarise someone else's ideas in your own words
  • quote someone else's ideas in their exact words
  • copy or adapt a diagram, table or any other visual material


2. How to reference

An in-text reference is provided each time you refer to ideas or information from another source, and includes the following details:

the author's family name (do not include given names) + reference number in square brackets

There are two main ways to present an in-text reference:

a) Integral referencing
The reference is in the body of your sentence, with the author's family name integrated into the sentence structure, and the reference number is given in square brackets. This type of reference is often used when you want to give prominence to the author.

Lam [2] argues that Hong Kong needs to further assimilate into the Pearl River Delta economy if its long term growth is to be assured.

IEEE_integral

b) Non-integral referencing
The reference number is enclosed in the sentence in square brackets. This type of reference is often used when you want to give prominence to the information.

The Hong Kong economy expanded by 2.3% in the third quarter of 2011 [3].

[3] Census and Statistics Department, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative
Region,Hong Kong Economic Trends. Hong Kong: Census and Statistics Department, Apr. 2012.


3. Including page numbers

Page numbers should be included in your reference list when you:

  • use a direct quote from a particular source
  • copy tables or figures, or present specific information like dates/statistics

Cheung [4] notes that "universities in Hong Kong need to strengthen their academic credentials" if they are to compete in the world economy.

[4] H. Chung, "Chinese universities and the future,"J. of Asian Education Research, vol. 84,
no. 8, pp. 296-304, 2012.

You can also include a page number when you take an idea from a particular page. Note: it would not be appropriate academic style to include a page number in all or most of your in-text citations.

For longer quotation of two or more sentences you should also include the page number after the reference number in square brackets. See page 8 of this guide for an example.


4. Use of "et al."

Where there are three or more authors, only the first author should be used followed by "et al." (which is Latin for et alia) meaning 'and others':

Wong et al. [5] found that the majority ...

The following chart shows how to format in-text citations for IEEE referencing style:

Number of authors Integral citation
One author Chan [1] argues ...
Two authors Chan and Leung [2] suggest ...
Three or more authors Finney et al. [3] comment ...
Groups (easily identified by abbreviation) as authors The Hong Kong Housing Authority (HKHA) [4] states ...

Subsequent citations:
The HKHA [4] maintains ...
Groups (no abbreviation) as authors Animals Asia [5] defines ...


5. Ellipsis and square brackets

Ellipsis refers to dots in the middle of a sentence. Their purpose is to let the reader know that some part of a quotation has been left out. If it is necessary to interrupt a quotation you are citing in order to clarify something, you should enclose your remarks in square brackets.

Original: "Students in the university should study outside class, in all credit bearing subjects, for at least 6 hours a week."

With text omitted and clarification: "Students in the university [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University] should study outside class ... for at least 6 hours a week."

Sample text with in-text referencing and reference list

IEEE in-text referencing uses the author's surname and the reference number in square brackets for integral citations, and the reference number in square brackets for non-integral citations. Include a page number (or paragraph number for online sources) in the reference list for direct quotations. The reference list is in numerical order.

Until recently, development in the textile and clothing industry has focused on "technological and cost aspects" [1]. According to Chen and Burns [2], emphasis has been placed on keeping the price of the "final product low and increasing efficiency in production". Tukker et al. [3] further point out that designers, manufacturers and retailers have paid less attention to other factors such as ownership and related business models, as well as consumer wishes and values. Hence, the products are designed and produced according to regularly changing trends that enable a quick profit [4], rather than radically rethinking the ways of designing and manufacturing the offering that is based on consumer needs and sustainability as proposed by Park and Tahara [5].

 

References
IEEE_references

1. What it does

The reference list provides full bibliographic details for all the sources referenced in your essay so that readers can easily locate the sources. Each different source referenced in your essay must have a matching entry in your reference list.

It is important to note that the reference list is not a bibliography. A bibliography lists everything you have read, while a reference list is deliberately limited to those sources for which you have provided in-text references. A bibliography is not needed unless specifically requested by your lecturer.


2. How it looks

The reference list is titled "References" and must be:

  • ordered as they appear in the in-text references (in order of citation, not in alphabetical order).
  • a single list where books, journal articles and electronic sources are listed together. Do not divide into separate lists.

The main elements required for all references are the author's name(s), year, title and publication information. The basic reference formats are shown in the following examples. These should be followed exactly, paying special attention to details of capitalisation, punctuation, use of italics and order of information.


3. Journal article format

[Reference number] First author's initials.Surname,Second author's initials.Surname, andThird
author's initials.Surname, "Title of article,"Name of journal, vol.Volume
number, no.Issue number, pp.Page range of article,Month Year of
publication.

IEEE_journalArticle


4. Book format

[Reference number] First author's initials.Surname,Second author's initials.Surname, and
Third author's initials.Surname.Title of book.City of publication:Publisher,Year of
publication.

IEEE_bookformat


5. Internet source format

[Reference number] Name of organisation,Title of page,Year of publication. [Type of medium].
Available:
URL[AccessedMonth Day,Year].

IEEE_internetSource

1. How do I cite two authors?

When there are two authors for a reference, include all their family names in the in-text reference, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. For a non-integral reference, only include the reference number in square brackets. For example:

  • According to Choi and Lee [1], students in Asia are more studious than their North American counterparts.
  • Wong and Morrison [2] strongly support the use of technology in the classroom.
  • Asian students devoted on average 16 hours per week to out-of-class study compared to 10 hours for North American students [3].

2. How do I cite when there are three or more authors?

If there are three or more authors, you should only use the first author's family name in the in-text reference followed by the abbreviation "et al.". For example:

  • This is supported by Wilson et al. [4] in their educational change study.

3. In the reference list what should I do when there is more than one author?

If there are two authors:
List by initials and last names. Use "and" to join the names.

[5] R. K. Chow and S. M. Ping, "Mood management in university students,"J. of
Asian Psychology
, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 1034-1048, 2004.

If there are three to six authors:
List by initials and last names; commas after author's names, while the last author's name is preceded again by "and".

[6] W. K. Luk, Y. K., Chan, A. N. Sing, H. Burton, L. Heart, and H. U. Burns, "The
Chinese student: A study,"J. of East Asian Psychology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 1190-
1204, 2009.

If there are seven or more authors:
Use "et al." after the first author.

[7] J. I. Recio-Rodriguezet al.,"Effectiveness of a smartphone application for improving
healthy lifestyles, a randomized clinical trial (Evident II): Study Protocol,"BMC Public
Health
, vol. 14, pp. 254-268, 2014.

4. How do I cite when there is no author and/or no date?

When no person is mentioned, include the title of the source or the authoring/sponsoring organisation in place of the author.

For example:

  • The English Language Centre [8] aims to improve students' communication skills to enable them to attain excellent results in their academic and professional lives.

When no year of publication is given, in the reference list use the abbreviation "n.d." which stands for 'no date' in place of a year, or give an approximate date preceded by "ca." which stands for 'circa'.

[9] Y. Amano, Final Fantasy: 20th Anniversary Artbook. Macau: ACG Studio, n.d.

 

[10] Equal Opportunities Commission,Equal Treatment for Native Speakers,
Hong Kong: Equal Opportunities Commission, ca. 2001.

 

However, be cautious about using sources without dates. A source with no date might not be reliable.

5. How do I present exact quotations?

Short quotations of fewer than thirty words should be enclosed in double quotation marks (" ... ") and be accompanied by an in-text reference. Remember to include the page or paragraph number in the reference list where the reader can find the quotation.

For example:

  • Research by Leung [11] indicates that "students in Hong Kong devote on average 5 hours a week to their English studies from the age of four".

Longer quotations of more than thirty words should be presented without quotation marks and indented (using Tab key) at the left. Include the page or paragraph number in the complete reference list.

For example:

According to Obama, America:
should be more modest in our belief that we can impose democracy on a country through military force. In the past, it has been movements for freedom from within tyrannical regimes that have led to flourishing democracies; movements that continue today. This does not mean abandoning our values and ideals; wherever we can, it’s in our interest to help foster democracy through the diplomatic and economic resources at our disposal [12].

6. Where exactly do I put the full stop when quoting and/or citing?

Full stops must always be placed at the very end of a sentence, after the quotation and/or in-text reference. For example:

  • According to Mooney [13], "exam pressure in Hong Kong has lessened slightly in the past decade".
  • Research indicates that students in Hong Kong have had four mobile devices before their 18th birthday [14].

7. Can I cite two or more sources at the same time?

Yes you can. Study the following examples.

Example 1: ... as shown by Chan [4], [5];
Example 2: ... as mentioned earlier [2], [4]-[7], [9];
Example 3: ... Wong [4] and Brown and Jones [5];

In example 1, Chan has at least two articles in the reference list. In example 2, there are six references mentioned. In example 3, there are two integral references.

8. Can I paste the URL of a webpage into my essay as an in-text citation?

No. Follow the IEEE referencing conventions for all sources. If you are unsure how to reference a website because there is no author or date information, follow the guidelines provided below for referencing sources without authors or dates.

9. How do I cite information from one author (Author 1) which I have found in a book or journal article by another author (Author 2)?

This is secondary citation. IEEE style does not allow for the use of secondary sources. You should locate the original source of information which is cited in a work which you have read. If an original source cannot be located, it should not be cited.

10. How do I cite e-mail messages?

E-mail messages from individuals should be cited as personal communications. Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. The in-text citation would be as follows:

  • In personal communication on Jun. 28, 2015, E. Cartman reveals that ...

11. How do I cite images such as photographs from websites?

All images including graphs, charts, maps, drawings and photographs are referred to as figures. You need to label the image as a figure and place a caption directly below the image, which includes the title and author of the image, and a reference number. For example:

  • Fig. 1. Flamingos standing and feeding in a pool near salt beds, Netherlands Antilles by Volkmar K. Wentzel [15]

The in-text citation would be like this:

  • Fig. 1 shows that ...

Your reference would be as follows:

[15] V. K. Wentzel, “Flamingos standing and feeding in a pool near salt beds, Netherlands Antilles,” 2015. [Photograph]. Available: http://natgeofound.tumblr.com/ [Accessed Jul. 5, 2015].
Part 2 Referencing guide

Type of source In-text references Reference list
Books Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Wong [1] points out that ". . . ".
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, Title. City of publicationPublisher, Year of publication, pp.Page number(s) for direct quotations.


[1]  B. K. Wong, Fostering Creativity. OxfordBlackwell, 2002, p.56.
Books in chapters Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Dikoter [2] comments that . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of chapter, "in Title of book. City of publicationPublisher, Year of publication, ch.Chapter number, pp.Page range of chapter.

[2]  F. Dikotter, "The gulag, "in Mao's Great Famine. LondonBloomsbury, 2011, ch.33, pp.287-291.
Chapters in an edited book Cite the author(s) of the chapter in the text of your paper, not the author(s) of the book + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Carter et al. [3] argue that . . .

(use et al. when citing 3 or more authors)
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of chapter, " in Title of book, Initials of editor. Surname, Ed. City of publicationPublisher, Year of publication, ch.Chapter number, pp.Page range of chapter.

[3]  R. Carter, R. Hughes, S. Armitage, L. Armstrong, S. McQueen, and M. McCarthy, "Children's literature, " in An Encyclopaedia of Translation, B. Tomlinson, Ed. CambridgeCUP, 1998, ch.4, pp.67-86.
Books with different editions Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
This is described by Hill et al. [4] . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, Title, Edition number. City of publicationPublisher, Year of publication.


[4]  V. Hill et al., The Structure of Metals, 3rd ed. Oxford Pergamon Press, 2012.

(use et al. when citing 7 or more authors)
Books with no date Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Griffith [5] points out that . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, Title. City of publicationPublisher, n.d.


[5]  C. Griffith, Almonds in Baking. Hong KongBakewell, n.d.
ebooks and pdfs Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Tsang [6] ascertains . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, Title. City of publication (if known)Publisher, Year of publication. [Type of medium]. Available: URL
[Accessed Month Day, Year].

[6]  S. Tsang, A Modern History of Hong Kong. LondonI. B. Tauris, 2004. [ebook].
Availablehttp://books.google.com.hk/books
[Accessed May 14, 2014].
Journal articles (with author) Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Examples:
Poon et al. [7] argue that students should refer to sources properly . . .

Lam [8] mentions that "students need to be mindful of the importance of referencing" . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of article, "
Name of journal, vol.Volume number, no.Issue number, pp.Page range of article, Month Year of publication.

[7]  L. S. Poon, J. C. Lee, A. B. Chan, J. E. Jones, and J. F. Smith, "Re-evaluating the effects of computer games on young people, "J. of Applied Social Psychology, vol.12, no.3, pp.88-100, May 2003.

[8]  T. R. Lam, "Referencing, "J. of Applied Social Psychology, vol.14, no.2, pp.19-26, Dec. 2005.
Journal articles (no author) Number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Many organisations already use this method [9].

(non-integral citation recommended)
[Ref # Title of article, "Name of journal, vol. Volume number, no.Issue number, pp.Page range of article, Month Year of publication.

[9]  "Infrared spectroscopy and allied technique, "J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., vol.12, no.3, pp.28-29, Jun. 2009.
URLs and DOIs Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Anderson-Clark et al. [10] believe that students should . . .
If the article has a DOI, use it in your reference. If there is no DOI, include the journal home page URL in your reference.

[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of article, " Name of journal, vol. Volume number, no. Issue number, pp.Page range of article, Month Year of publication. [Online]. doi:#[Accessed Month Day, Year].

[10]  T. Anderson-Clark, R. Green, and T. Henley, "The relationship between first names and teacher expectations for achievement motivation, "J. of Language & Social Psychology, vol.27, pp.94-99, 2008. [Online]. doi10.1177/0261927X07309514
[Accessed May 24, 2014].
Electronic journals Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
. . . and this has been formulated by Halonen et al. [11] who . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of article, "
Name of journal, vol.Volume number, no.Issue number, pp.Page range of article, Month Year of publication. [Online]. Available: URL [Accessed Month Day, Year].

[11]  S. J. Halonen, R. R. Simpson, D. G. Jolly, P. R. Au, F. P. Bagot, and J. J. Chui, "Computer games and personal development, "Family Forum, vol.12, no.3, 2010. [Online]. Availablehttp://www.ff.comgampedev.org
[Accessed May 7, 2014].
Internet sources (electronic only sources) Name of organisation + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
The Hong Kong Housing Authority (HKHA) [12] maintains that . . .
[Ref # Name of organisation, Title of article, Year of publication. [Online]. Available: URL [Accessed  date].


[12]  The Hong Kong Housing Authority, Housing in figures, 2011. [Online]. Available: http://www.housingauthority.gov.hk/en/about-us/publications-and-statistics/HIF2011.pdf
[Accessed Mar. 7, 2014].
Government/Company reports Name of department/company + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
The Equal Opportunities Commission [13] has reported that . . .

The Coca-Cola Company [14] announced . . .
[Ref # Name of department/company, "Title of article, " (Number of document – if given). City of publicationPublisher, Year of publication.


[13]  Equal Opportunities Commission, "Preventing and dealing with sexual harassment, "Hong KongEqual Opportunities Commission, 2010.


[14]  The Coca-Cola Company, "2014 Annual report, " 2015. [Online]. Available:http://www.coca-colacompany.com/investors/annual-other-reports
[Accessed Jul. 5, 2015]
DVDs or films For a film or DVD, use the surname of the director + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Law [15] captured the imagination of . . .

If there is no director, it is suggested that a non-integral reference should be used.

Example:
. . . as was shown by numerous films in the 1980s [16].
For a film the suggested elements should include:

[Ref # Initials of producer. Surname, Producer, and Initials of director. Surname, Director, Title of motion picture. [Type of medium]. Country of originStudio or distributor, Year of release.

[15]  A. Law, Director, Echoes of the rainbow. [Motion picture]. Hong KongMei Ah Entertainment, 2010.


[Ref # Full title of DVD or video. [Type of medium]. Country of originFilm studio or maker, Year of release. (Other relevant details).


[16]  Great Films from the 80sA selection of clips from Warner Brothers top films from the 1980s. [DVD]. New YorkWarner Brothers, 2005.
YouTube videos It is suggested that a non-integral reference should be used for YouTube sources.

Example:
. . . celebrated its 70th anniversary in 2007 [17].
[Ref # Screen name of contributor, Video title, Series title, Month Day, Year of publication. [Type of medium]. Available: URL [Accessed  Month Day, Year].


[17]  HongKongPolyU, PolyU milestones, Nov. 17, 2011. [Video file]. Available:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XsfWmFyrNg [Accessed Mar. 7, 2014].
Newspaper articles (with author) Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Van der Kamp [18] believes that . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of article, " Name of newspaper, p.Page number(s), Month Day, Year of publication.


[18]  J. Van der Kamp, "Just leasing more land won't open up the property market, "Sunday Morning Post, p.15, Apr. 1, 2012.
Newspaper articles (no author) Name of newspaper + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Sunday Morning Post [19] states that . . .
[Ref # "Title of article, "Name of Newspaper, p.Page number(s), Month Day, Year of publication.


[19]  "Put pedestrians first, not cars, "Sunday Morning Post, p. 14, Apr. 1, 2012.
Online newspaper articles Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Cross [20] opines that . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of article, " Name of newspaper, Month Day, Year of publication. [Type of medium]. Available: URL
[Accessed Month Day, Year].


[20]  G. Cross, "News of a children's commission will bring good cheer to Hong Kong, "South China Morning Post, Dec. 24, 2013. [Online]. Available:
http://www.scmp.com/comment/insight-opinion/article/1389081/news-childrens-commission-will-bring-good-cheer-hong-kong [Accessed Dec. 26, 2013].
Magazine articles Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Pringle [21] illustrates that …
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of article, " Name of magazine, vol.Volume number, no.Issue number, p.Page number(s), Month Year  of publication.


[21]  H. Pringle, "Lofty ambitions of the Inca, "National Geographic Magazine, vol.219, no.4, p.34, Apr. 2011.
Online magazine articles Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Toobin [22] comments that . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of article, " Name of magazine, vol.Volume number, no.Issue number, p.Page number(s) (if given), Month Day, Year of publication. [Type of medium].
Available: URL [Accessed Month Day, Year].

[22]  J. Toobin, "Same-sex marriage, the legal deluge, "
The New Yorker, Dec. 24, 2013. [Online]. Available:
http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/comment/2013/12/same-sex-marriage-the-legal-deluge.html [Accessed Dec. 26, 2013].
Translated work Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Freud [23] acknowledged . .
When quoting from a foreign language work in the main body of the text, the quote should be provided in English.

[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title, " (Transl. : Initials of translator. Surname). City of publicationPublisher, Year of publication, p.Page number for a quotation.

[23]  S. Freud, "The psychopathology of everyday life, " (Transl. :A. A. Brill). LondonT. Fisher Unwin, 1914, p.109.
Chinese sources Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Xiao [24] shows that . . .
Do a romanisation of the author's name and title of book/article. If readers cannot read Chinese, add a translation of the book/article’s title in square brackets.

[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, Title [Translation of book/article's title]. City of PublicationPublisher, Year of publication.

[24]  L. Xiao, Zhongguo su miao yi shu [The art of Chinese drawing]. ShanghaiMei Shu Chu Ban She, 2008.
Foreign sources Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Kundera [25] derides . . .
When quoting from a foreign language work in the main body of the text, the quote should be provided in English.

[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, Title [Translation of book/article's title]. City of PublicationPublisher, Year of publication.

[25]  M. Kundera, L'Insoutenable légèreté de l'être [The unbearable lightness of being]. ParisGallimard, 1984.
Lecture notes Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Jenkins [26] asserts that . . .
You are advised not to cite university lecture notes – to do so is often deemed unacceptable. You ought to locate, read and cite the sources and references provided in the Reading List or References in the lecture notes.

However, the following guidelines may assist you should you need to cite lecture notes:

[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title, " lecture notes for Module/Subject code and title, Name of department, Name of institution, Month Day, Year of lecture.

[26]  R. Jenkins, "Developments in computer-assisted Learning, "lecture notes for MM2355 Management, Department of Management and Marketing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Oct. 12, 2012.
Laws When citing the Basic Law, use name of the law, article number + number of reference in square brackets.

Example:
The Basic Law Art 27 [27] affirms that . . .

When citing Hong Kong legislation, use name of the ordinance + number of reference in square brackets.

Example:
As stipulated by the Employment Ordinance [28], . . .
[Ref # Basic Law Art Article number, The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, Year of publication.


[27]  Basic Law Art 27, The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, 1997.



[Ref # Name of ordinance, Cap Chapter numbers Section number, Laws of Hong Kong, Year of edition.


[28]  Employment Ordinance, Cap 57 s 14, Laws of Hong Kong, 2007.
Online dissertations and theses Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Yuen [29] points out that . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of dissertation/thesis, " Ph.D. dissertation/M.S. thesis, Name of department, Name of university, City of university, Month Year. [Type of medium]. Available: URL [Accessed Month Day, Year].


[29]  W. L. Yuen, "An investigation of the politeness phenomena in hotel service encounters, "Ph. D. dissertation, Department of English, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 2009. [Online].
Availablehttps://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/bitstream/200/5346/1/b23429835.pdf [Accessed Dec26, 2013].
Conference papers available online Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Abdoli and Kahani [30] discuss . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of paper, " presented at title of conference. [Type of medium]. Available: URL [Accessed Month Day, Year].


[30]  F. Abdoli and M. Kahani, "Ontology-based distributed intrusion detection system, "presented at the 14th International CSI Computer Conference. [Online]. Availablehttps://ieeexplore-ieee-org.ezproxy.lb.polyu.edu.hk/document/5349372 [Accessed Jul. 5, 2015].
Online forum, discussion group, or blog post Surname of author + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
Gates [31] suggests that . . .
[Ref # Initials of author. Surname, "Title of post, " Month Day, Year. [Type of medium]. Available:  URL [Accessed Month Day, Year].


[31]  B. Gates, "Setting targets to save lives, "Jul. 2, 2015. [Blog]. Available:http://www.gatesnotes.com/Health/The-Best-Investment-for-Improving-the-World [Accessed Jul. 5, 2015].
Speeches available online Surname of presenter + number of reference in square brackets

Example:
President Obama [32] announced that . . .
[Ref # Initials of presenter. Surname, "Title of speech, " Month Day, Year of broadcast. [Type of medium]. Available: URL [Accessed Month Day, Year].


[32]  B. Obama, "Remarks by the President on procurement, "Mar. 4, 2009. [Online]. Available: http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-procurement-3409
[Accessed Jul. 5, 2015].
Images from websites (SeeFrequently asked questions (11)for details) All images are referred to as figures.

Example:
Fig. 1 shows that . . .
[Ref # Initials of author/artist. Surname, "Title of image, "Year of publication. [Type of medium]. Available: URL [Accessed Month Day, Year].


[33]  V. K. Wentzel, "Flamingos standing and feeding in a pool near salt beds, Netherlands Antilles, "2015. [Photograph]. Available:http://natgeofound.tumblr.com/ [Accessed Jul. 5, 2015].
References with missing details If no obvious publication date, aim to establish the earliest likely date, for example,

2012? = probable year
ca. 2012 = approximately 2012
201- = decade certain but not year
201? = probable decade

If you cannot identify the name of an author, city or publisher, use the following terms:

anon. = author is anonymous or unidentifiable
s. l. = no city of publication (Latin: sine loco)
s. n. = no named publisher (Latin: sine nomine)

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