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The guides have been written by the ELC to help you to become familiar with academic referencing conventions and to reference correctly in your work. Most departments at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University use one of four referencing styles. Choose the appropriate referencing style on the left as advised by your programme leader.

Harvard Referencing Guide

The Harvard referencing system FH_17

Referencing is a standard practice for acknowledging information sources in academic writing at university. Whenever you write an assignment that requires you to find and use information, you are expected to reference all the sources of information and ideas included in your writing.

This webpage provides guidelines for using the Harvard referencing system. There are two components to a Harvard reference:

  1. an in-text reference in the body of your assignment:
    Chan (2011) explores a range of themes and ideas ...
  2. full reference details in your reference list:
    Chan, D.P., 2011. Business in China. Hong Kong: Dragon Press.
Part 1 Basic rules

Why do we reference?

Most academic assignments require wide reading so that previous and current thinking about a particular topic can be identified. It is important to show your reader that you have sought out expert, reliable sources to help support and develop your thinking on your topic. The referencing in your assignment should:

  • demonstrate good research practice
  • show the range of ideas and approaches you have found and thought about
  • acknowledge where those ideas came from
  • tell your reader where they can locate the sources you have used

Referencing also helps you to avoid plagiarism. If you present someone else's ideas, and/or the way they express their ideas, as if they are your own work, you are committing plagiarism. Plagiarism can be unintentional due to poor referencing, but the consequences are always serious. Accurate referencing helps you to avoid this.

    1. When to reference

    Every time you include someone else's words, ideas or information in your assignment, an in-text reference must be provided. Insert an in-text reference whenever you:

    • paraphrase someone else's ideas in your own words
    • summarise someone else's ideas in your own words
    • quote someone else's ideas in their exact words
    • copy or adapt a diagram, table or any other visual material


    2. How to reference

    An in-text reference is provided each time you refer to ideas or information from another source, and includes the following details:

    the author's family name (do not include given names) + the year of publication + page numbers when needed.

    There are two main ways to present an in-text reference:

    a) Integral referencing
    The reference is in the body of your sentence, with the author's family name integrated into the sentence structure, and the date is given in brackets. This type of reference is often used when you want to give prominence to the author.

    Lam (2010) argues that Hong Kong needs to further assimilate into the Pearl River Delta economy if its long term growth is to be assured.

    b) Non-integral referencing
    The reference is enclosed in the sentence in brackets. This type of reference is often used when you want to give prominence to the information.

    The Hong Kong economy expanded by 2.3% in the third quarter of 2011 (Census and Statistics Department, 2012).


    3. Including page numbers

    Page numbers should be included when you:

    • use a direct quote from a particular source
    • copy tables or figures, or present specific information like dates/statistics
    Cheung (2012, p.48) notes that "universities in Hong Kong need to strengthen their academic credentials" if they are to compete in the world economy.

    You can also include a page number when you take an idea from a particular page. However, it would not be appropriate academic style to include a page number in all or most of your in-text citations if you are only taking ideas from a source.


    4. Use of "et al."

    Where there are several authors (more than four), only the first author should be used followed by "et al." (which is Latin for et alia) meaning and others:

    Wong et al. (2005) found that the majority ...

    or as a non-integral reference:

    Recent research (Wong et al., 2005) has found that the majority of ...

    The following chart shows how to format in-text citations for Harvard referencing style:

    Type of citation → Integral Non-integral
    Number of authors ↓ First citation in text Subsequent citations in text Citation in brackets, first citation in text Citation in brackets, subsequent citations in text
    One author Chan (2010) argues ... Chan (2010) argues ... (Chan, 2010) (Chan, 2010)
    Two authors Chan and Leung (2010) suggest ... Chan and Leung (2010) suggest ... (Chan & Leung, 2010) (Chan & Leung, 2010)
    Three authors Tsui, Leung and Collins (2010) find ... Tsui, Leung and Collins (2010) find ... (Tsui, Leung & Collins, 2010) (Tsui, Leung & Collins, 2010)
    Four authors Wong et al. (2010) mention ... Wong et al. (2010) mention ... (Wong et al., 2010) (Wong et al., 2010)
    Groups (easily identified by abbreviation) as authors The Hong Kong Housing Authority (HKHA, 2008) states ... The HKHA (2008) states ... (The Hong Kong Housing Authority [HKHA], 2008) (HKHA, 2008)
    Groups (no abbreviation) as authors Animals Asia (2007) defines ... Animals Asia (2007) defines ... (Animals Asia, 2007) (Animals Asia, 2007)
    With page number for quotation Chan (2010, p.15) argues ... (Chan, 2010, p.15)


    5. Other expressions used in referencing

    The terms ibid. and op. cit. are used to avoid repeating the same reference details in-text i.e. the body of your text and in your Reference List.

    ibid. is Latin for ibidem, which means 'in the same place'. You can use ibid. when your next citation is the same as the last one.

    op. cit. is also Latin and stands for opere citato, which means 'in the work cited'. You can use op. cit. when the same reference is cited somewhere else in your text, but is not the most recent citation.

    Look at the example below:

    The advantages of having effective referencing skills are well-recognised in terms of students having greater control over their written work (Walker, 2009), achieving and sustaining higher grades (Choi, 2010) and in developing competence as a writer (Lau, 2009). But, students need to "... be mindful of the importance of referencing and be consistent in their use at all times ..." (Aziz, 2010, p.11). However, it can be hard for some students to distinguish between Western surnames and Western given names, and Aziz (ibid., p.12) states that "... students need to read more widely to understand the differences between Western and Chinese names". The findings of some researchers (Walker, op. cit.) show that reading in the target language is essential for sustained academic progress.


    6. Ellipsis and Square brackets

    Ellipsis refers to dots in the middle of a sentence. Their purpose is to let the reader know that some part of a quotation has been left out. If it is necessary to interrupt a quotation you are citing in order to clarify something, you should enclose your remarks in square brackets.

    Original: "Students in the university should study outside class, in all credit bearing subjects, for at least 6 hours a week."

    With text omitted and clarification: "Students in the university [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University] should study ... for at least 6 hours a week."

    Sample text with in-text referencing and reference list

    Harvard in-text referencing uses author's surname and year. Include a page number (or paragraph number for online sources) for direct quotations. The reference list is in alphabetical order.

    Until recently, development in the textile and clothing industry has focused on "technological and cost aspects" (HKRITA, 2012, para.5). According to Chen and Burns (2009, p.255), emphasis has been placed on keeping the price of the "final product low and increasing efficiency in production". Tukker et al. (2011) further point out that designers, manufacturers and retailers have paid less attention to other dimensions of the offering, e.g. ownership and related business models, as well as consumer wishes and values. Hence, the products are designed and produced according to regularly changing trends that enable quick profit (Lee & Chen, 2009), rather than radically rethinking the ways of designing and manufacturing the offering that is based on consumer needs and sustainability as proposed by Park and Tahara (2011).

     

    References
    harvard_references

1. What it does

The reference list provides full bibliographic details for all the sources referenced in your essay so that readers can easily locate the sources. Each different source referenced in your essay must have a matching entry in your reference list.

It is important to note that the reference list is not a bibliography. A bibliography lists everything you have read, while a reference list is deliberately limited to those sources for which you have provided in-text references. A bibliography is not needed unless specifically requested by your lecturer.

2. How it looks

The reference list is titled "References" and must be:

  • arranged alphabetically by author's family name (or title/sponsoring organisation where a source has no author).
  • a single list where books, journal articles and electronic sources are listed together. Do not divide into separate lists.

The main elements required for all references are the author's name(s), year, title and publication information. The basic reference formats are shown in the following examples. These should be followed exactly, paying special attention to details of capitalisation, punctuation, use of italics and order of information.

3. Journal article format

First author's surname, Initials., Second author's surname, Initials. and Third author's surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title of article. Name of journal, Volume number(Issue number), pp.Page range of article.

harvard_journalArticle

4. Book format

First author's surname, Initials., Second author's surname, Initials. and Third author's surname, Initials., Year of publication. Title of book. City of publication: Publisher.

harvard_bookformat

5. Internet source format

Organisation, Year of publication. Title of article. [type of medium] Available at: <url> [Accessed date].

harvard_internetSource

1. How do I cite two or three authors?

When there are two or three authors for a reference, include all their family names in the in-text reference, in the same order that they are listed in the original source. For example:

  • According to Choi, Fang and Lee (2012), students in Asia are more studious than their North American counterparts.
  • Wong and Morrison (2011) strongly support the use of technology in the classroom.
  • Asian students devoted on average 16 hours per week to out-of-class study compared to 10 hours for North American students (Choi, Fang & Lee, 2012).

2. How do I cite more than three authors?

If there are four or more authors, you should only use the first author's family name in the in-text reference followed by the abbreviation "et al.". For example:

  • This is supported by Wilson et al. (2011) in their educational change study.

However, all the authors' names must be included in your reference list, in the same order that they are listed in the original source.

3. How do I cite when there is no author and/or no date?

When no person is mentioned, include the title of the source or the authoring/sponsoring organisation in place of the author.

For example:

  • The centre aims to improve students' communication skills to enable them to attain excellent results in their academic and professional lives (English Language Centre, 2012).
  • Oral presentations, like written assessment tasks, should contain an introduction, body, and conclusion ('Making the most of oral presentations', 2011).

When no year of publication is given, use the abbreviation "n.d." which stands for 'no date' in place of a year, or give an approximate date preceded by "ca." which stands for 'circa'.

However, be cautious about using sources without dates. A source with no date might not be reliable.

4. How do I cite information from one author (Author 1) which I have found in a book or journal article by another author (Author 2)?

Sometimes you will need to refer to authors whose work you encounter secondhand (i.e. mentioned in other people's work) rather than firsthand. You should mention both authors (Author 1 and Author 2) in your in-text reference, but would only list the actual item you read (Author 2) in your reference list.

For example, if you read an idea by Choy (Author 1, published in 2008) in a source by Martins (Author 2, published in 2012) you would need to mention both authors in your in-text reference. For example:

  • One scholar (Choy, 2008, cited in Martins, 2012, p.143) states that ...
  • Choy (2008, cited in Martins, 2012, p.143) states that ...

However, in the reference list you should only list Martins (Author 2, the source you read) and not Choy (whose idea you read about in Martins).

5. How do I cite multiple sources by the same author published in the same year?

If an author has published more than one item in the same year, place a lower case letter of the alphabet next to the dates in your in-text referencing to distinguish between these separate publications. For example:

  • Preston argues that a man paints with his brain, not his hands (2011a) and reiterates this elsewhere (2011b).

You must also include these lower case letters in your reference list entries as well. The order in which you attach the letters is determined by the alphabetical order of the titles of these sources.

6. What if there are two authors with the same family name?

Occasionally you will need to reference two different authors who share the same family name. To avoid ambiguity, include the author's first initial after their family name in the in-text references. For example:

  • Urban deprivation in Hong Kong has been seen to increase in the first decade of this century (Chan, E., 2010). Whether this will affect the language skills of fresh graduates in Hong Kong is still disputed (Chan, C., 2010).

7. How do I present exact quotations?

Short quotations of fewer than thirty words should be enclosed in double quotation marks (" ... ") and be accompanied by an in-text reference including a page number (where possible).

For example:

  • Research indicates that "students in Hong Kong devote on average 5 hours a week to their English studies from the age of four" (Leung, 2010, p.31).

Longer quotations of more than thirty words should be presented without quotation marks and indented (using Tab key) at the left.

For example:

According to Obama (2006), America:
should be more modest in our belief that we can impose democracy on a country through military force. In the past, it has been movements for freedom from within tyrannical regimes that have led to flourishing democracies; movements that continue today. This does not mean abandoning our values and ideals; wherever we can, it’s in our interest to help foster democracy through the diplomatic and economic resources at our disposal. (para.45)

8. Where exactly do I put the full stop when quoting and/or citing?

Full stops must always be placed at the very end of a sentence, after the quotation and/or in-text reference. For example:

  • According to Mooney (2011, p.88), "exam pressure in Hong Kong has lessened slightly in the past decade".
  • Research indicates that students in Hong Kong have had four mobile devices before their 18th birthday (Samson, 2012).

9. Can I cite two or more sources at the same time?

Yes. Use a semi-colon to separate the sources in the in-text reference, and list the items alphabetically according to their authors' family names. For example:

  • Social networking has had a major impact on young people (Chan & Erickson, 2012; Lam & Mok, 2008).

If referencing multiple sources by the same author, present the items in chronological order (oldest to most recent) and separate them with commas. For example:

  • Burns (2006, 2009, 2012) argues that there should be more universities in Hong Kong.

10. Can I paste the URL of a webpage into my essay as an in-text citation?

No. Follow the author-date in-text referencing conventions for all sources. If you are unsure how to reference a website because there is no author or date information, follow the guidelines provided for referencing sources without authors or dates.

11. How do I cite e-mail messages?

E-mail messages from individuals should be cited as personal communications. Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible. For example:

  • E. Cartman (personal communication, June 28, 2015) reveals that ...
  • ... (Marsh, S., personal communication, May 5, 2015).

12. How do I cite images such as photographs from websites?

All images including graphs, charts, maps, drawings and photographs are referred to as figures. You need to label the image as a figure and place a caption directly below the image, which includes the title and author of the image, and its year of publication. For example:

  • Figure 1: Flamingos standing and feeding in a pool near salt beds, Netherlands Antilles (Volkmar K. Wentzel, 2015)

The in-text citation would be like this:

  • Figure 1 shows that ...

Your reference would be as follows:

  • Wentzel, V. K., 2015. Flamingos standing and feeding in a pool near salt beds, Netherlands Antilles. [photograph] Available at: <http://natgeofound.tumblr.com/> [Accessed 5 July 2015].
Part 2 Referencing guide

Type of source In-text references Reference list
Books Surname of author, year of publication, (page number for direct quotations)

Example:
Wong (2009) points out that ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title. City of publication: Publisher.

Wong, B.K., 2002. Fostering creativity. Oxford: Blackwell.
Chapters in an edited book Cite the author(s) of the chapter in the text of your paper, not the author(s) of the book, year of publication

Example:
Carter, Hughes and McCarthy (1998) argue that ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. 'Title of chapter', in Surname of editor, Initials., ed., Title of book. City of publication: Publisher, pp.Page range of chapter.

Carter, R., Hughes, R. and McCarthy, M., 1998. 'Telling tails: Grammar, the spoken language and materials development', in Tomlinson, B., ed., Materials development in language teaching. Cambridge: CUP, pp.67-86.
Books with different editions Surname of author, year of publication

Example:
Finney (2012) identifies ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title. Edition number. City of publication: Publisher.

Finney, T.K., 2012. Fostering creativity. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.
Books with no date Surname of author (n.d.)

Example:
Nelson (n.d.) identifies ...
Surname of author, Initials., n.d. Title. City of publication: Publisher.

Nelson, T.Z., n.d. Language matters. Bristol: Simpsons.
ebooks and pdfs Surname of author, year of publication

Example:
Tsang (2004) ascertains ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title. [type of medium] City of publication (if known): Publisher. Available at: <URL> [Accessed date].

Tsang, S., 2004. A modern history of Hong Kong. [ebook] London: I.B.Tauris. Available at: <http://books.google.com.hk/books> [Accessed 10 April 2014].
Journal articles (with author) Surname of author, year of publication, (page number for direct quotations)

Examples:
Poon et al. (2003) argue that students should refer to sources properly ...

(use et al. when citing 4 or more authors)

Lam (2005, p.19) mentions that "students need to be mindful of the importance of referencing" ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of article. Name of Journal, Volume number (Issue number), pp. Page range of article.

Poon, L.S., Lee, J.C., Chan, A.B., Jones, J.E. and Smith, J.F., 2003. Re-evaluating the effects of computer games on young people. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 12 (3), pp.88-100.

Lam, L.S., 2005. Referencing. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14(2), pp.19-26.
Journal articles (no author) 'Title of article', year of publicaton

Example:
Many organisations already use this method ('Organisational change in the 21st century', 2012).
Title of article. Year of publication. Name of Journal, Volume number (Issue number), pp.Page range of article.

Organisational change in the 21st century. 2012. Perspectives in Management, 12(3), pp.28-29.
URLs and DOIs Surname of author, year of publication

Examples:
Anderson-Clark, Green and Henley (2008) believe that students should ...
If the article has a DOI, use it in your reference. If there is no DOI, include the journal home page URL in your reference.

Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of article. Name of journal, [e-journal] Volume number (Issue number), pp.Page range of article. doi: #[Accessed date].

Anderson-Clark, T., Green, Rand Henley, T., 2008. The relationship between first names and teacher expectations for achievement motivation. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, [e-journal] 27, pp.94-99. doi: 10.1177/0261927X07309514 [Accessed 8 April 2014].
Electronic journals Surname of author, year of publication

Example:
... and this has been formulated by Halonen et al. (2010) who ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of article. Name of journal, [e-journal] Volume number (Issue number). Available at: <url> [Accessed date].

Halonen, S.J., Simpson, R.R., Jolly, D.G., Au, P.R., Bagot, F.P. and Chui, J.J., 2010. Computer games and personal development. Family Forum, [e-journal] 12(3). Available at: <http://www.ff.comgamperdev.org> [Accessed 31 March 2014].
Internet sources (electronic only sources) Name of organisation, year of publication, (paragraph number for direct quotations)

Example:
The Hong Kong Housing Authority (HKHA, 2011, para.6) maintains that ...
Name of organisation, Year of publication. Title of article. [type of medium] Available at: <url> [Accessed date].

The Hong Kong Housing Authority, 2011. Housing in figures. [pdf] Available at:
<http://www.housingauthority.gov.hk/en/pdf/about
-us/publications-and-statistics/HIF2011.pdf> [Accessed 2 April 2014].
Government/Company reports Name of department/company, year of publication

Example:
The Equal Opportunities Commission (2010) has reported that ...

The Coca-Cola Company (2015) announced...
Name of department/company, Year of publication. Title of article (Number of document – if given). City of publication: Publisher.

Equal Opportunities Commission, 2010. Preventing and dealing with sexual harassment. Hong Kong: Equal Opportunities Commission.

The Coca-Cola Company, 2015.2014 Annual report.
[pdf] Available at: <http://www.coca-colacompany
.com/investors/annual-other-reports> [Accessed 5
July 2015].
DVDs or films For a film or DVD, use the surname of the director and year of release.

Examples:
The ups and downs of a Hong Kong family through the eyes of ... (Echoes of the rainbow, 2010).

... as was shown by numerous films in the 1980s (Great films from the 80s, 2005).

(non-integral citation recommended)
For a film the suggested elements should include:

Title of film. Year of release. [type of medium] Directed by Initials. Surname of director. Country of origin: Film studio.

Echoes of the rainbow2010. [film] Directed by A. Law. Hong Kong: Mei Ah Entertainment.

Full title of DVD or video. Year of release. [type of medium] Country of origin: Film studio or maker. (Other relevant details).

Great films from the 80s: A selection of clips from Warner Brothers top films from the 1980s. 2005. [DVD] New York: Warner Brothers.
YouTube videos It is suggested that a non-integral reference should be used for youtube sources.

Example:
... celebrated its 70th anniversary in 2007 (HongKongPolyU, 2011).
Screen name of contributor, Year. Video title, Series title.(if relevant) [type of medium] Available at: <URL> [Accessed date].

HongKongPolyU, 2011. PolyU milestones. [video online] Available at:<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8XsfWmFyrNg> [Accessed 8 April 2014].
Newspaper articles (with author) Surname of author, year of publication.

Example:
Van der Kamp (2012) believes that ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of article. Name of newspaper, Day Month, p.Page number(s).

Van der Kamp, J., 2012. Just leasing more land won't open up the property market. Sunday Morning Post,1 April,p.15.
Newspaper articles (no author) Name of newspaper, year of publication

Example:
Sunday Morning Post (2012) points out that ...
Name of newspaper, Year of publication. Title of article. Day Month, p.Page number(s).

Sunday Morning Post, 2012. Put pedestrians first, not cars.1 April,p.14.
Online newspaper articles Surname of author, year of publication

Example:
Cross (2013) opines that ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of article. Name of newspaper, [type of medium] Day Month. Available at: <URL> [Accessed date].

Cross, G., 2013. News of a children's commission will bring good cheer to Hong Kong. South China Morning Post, [online] 24 December. Available at: <http://www.scmp.com/comment/insight
-opinion/article/1389081/news-childrens-commission-will-bring
-good-cheer-hong-kong> [Accessed 26 December 2013].
Magazine articles Surname of author, year of publication

Example:
Pringle (2011) illustrates that ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of article. Name of magazine, Volume number (Issue number), p.Page number(s).

Pringle, H., 2011. Lofty ambitions of the Inca. National Geographic Magazine, 219(4), p.34.
Online magazine articles Surname of author, year of publication

Example:
Toobin (2013) comments that ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of article. Name of magazine, [type of medium] Day Month. Available at: <URL> [Accessed date].

Toobin, J., 2013. Same-sex marriage, the legal deluge. The New Yorker,[online] 24 December. Available at: <http://www.newyorker.com/online/blogs/comment/2013/12/same-sex-marriage-the-legal-deluge.html> [Accessed 26 December 2013].
Translated work Surname of author, year of publication, (page number for direct quotations)

Examples:
Freud (1914) stated that ...

Freud (1914, p.109) stated, "...".
When quoting from a foreign language work in the main body of the text, the quote should be provided in English.

Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title. Trans. Initials. Surname of translator. City of publication: Publisher.

Freud, S., 1914. The psychopathology of everyday life. Trans. AABrill. London: TFisher Unwin.
Chinese sources Surname of author, year of publication, (page number for direct quotations)

Example:
Xiao (2008) shows that ...

According to Xiao (2008, p.37), "...".
Do a romanisation of the author's name and title of book/article. If readers cannot read Chinese, add a translation of the book/article's title in square brackets. If there is no official translation, list the item at the end of the reference list alphabetically.

Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title [Translation of book/article's title]. City of Publication: Publisher.

Xiao, L., 2008. Zhongguo su miao yi shu [The art of Chinese drawing]. Shanghai: Mei Shu Chu Ban She.
Foreign sources Surname of author, year of publication

Example:
Kundera (1984) derides ...
When quoting from a foreign language work in the main body of the text, the quote should be provided in English.

Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title
[Translation of book/article's title]. City of Publication: Publisher.

Kundera, M., 1984. L'Insoutenable légèreté de l'être
[The unbearable lightness of being]. Paris: Gallimard.
Lecture notes Surname of author, year

Example:
Jenkins (2010) implies that ...
You are advised not to cite university lecture notes: to do so is often deemed unacceptable. You ought to locate, read and cite the sources and references provided in the Reading List or References in the lecture notes.

However, the following guidelines may assist you should you need to cite lecture notes:

Surname of lecturer/author, Initials., Year. Title of lecture notes, Module/Subject code Module/Subject title. Name of institution, unpublished.

Jenkins, J., 2010. Developments in computer-assisted learning. MM2355 Management. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, unpublished.
Online dissertations and theses Surname of author, year

Example:
Yuen (2009) points out that ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year. Title of dissertation/thesis. Level. Name of Institution. Available at: <URL> [Accessed date].

Yuen, W.L., 2009. An investigation of the politeness phenomena in hotel service encounters. Ph.D. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Available at: <https://theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/bitstream/200/5346/1/b23429835.pdf>
[Assessed 26 December 2013].
Laws When citing the Basic Law, use name of the law, article number and year of publication.

Example:
The Basic Law Art 27 (1997) affirms that ...

When citing Hong Kong legislation, use name of the ordinance and year of edition.

Example:
As stipulated by the Employment Ordinance (2007), ...
Basic Law Art Article number, The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, Year of publication.

Basic Law Art 27, The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, 1997.

Name of ordinance, Cap Chapter numbers Section number, Laws of Hong Kong, Year of edition.

Employment Ordinance, Cap 57 s 14, Laws of Hong Kong,2007.
Conference papers available online Surname of author, year of publication

Example:
Abdoli and Kanhani (2009) discuss ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of paper. Paper presented at title of conference, Location of conference, Day Month. Available at: 
<URL> [Accessed date].

Abdoli, F. and Kahani,M.,2009.Ontology-based distributed intrusion detection system. Paper presented at the 14th International CSI Computer Conference,Tehran,Iran,20-21 October. Available at:
<https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.ezproxy.lb.polyu.edu.hk/document/5349372> [Accessed 5 July 2015].
Online forum, discussion group, or blog post Surname of author, year of publication

Example:
Gates (2015) suggests that ...
Surname of author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of post, [type of medium] Day Month. Available at:
<URL> [Accessed date].

Gates, B., 2015. Setting targets to save lives, [blog] 2 July. Available at: <http://www.gatesnotes.com
/Health/The-Best-Investment-for-Improving-the
-World> [Accessed 5 July 2015].
Speeches available online Surname of presenter, year of broadcast

Example:
President Obama (2009) announced that ...
Surname of presenter, Initials., Year of broadcast.
Title of speech, [type of medium] Day Month.
Available at: <URL> [Accessed date].

Obama, B., 2009. Remarks by the President on procurement, [online] 4 MarchAvailable at:
<http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-procurement-3409> [Accessed 5 July 2015].
Images from websites
(See p.10 for details)
All images are referred to as figures.

Example:
Figure 1 shows that ...
Surname of author/artist, Initials., Year of publication.
Title of image. [type of medium] Available at: <URL>
[Accessed date].

Wentzel, V.K., 2015. Flamingos standing and feeding in a pool near salt beds, Netherlands Antilles.
[photograph] Available at: <http://natgeofound.tumblr.com/> [Accessed 5 July 2015].

References with missing details If there is no obvious publication date, aim to establish the earliest likely date, for example,

2010? = probable year
c. 2010 = approximately 2010
201- = decade certain but not year
201? = probable decade

If you cannot identify the name of an author, city or publisher, use the following terms:

Anon. = author is anonymous or unidentifiable
s.l. = no city of publication (Latin: sine loco)
s.n. = no named publisher (Latin: sine nomine)

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