Guidelines for Term Paper Writing: Elements and documentation
Guidelines for Reference Materials (English)
have developed different styles of documentation.
No matter which one you use for your paper,
the principle is to be consistent. The format
system provided. Here comes from the American
Psychological Association (APA system).
4.1. Parenthetical Reference
A term paper must have a clear documentation
of all reference materials used in the
text. This requires that your paper must
indicate from where you obtained:
- direct quotations
- borrowed ideas (including paraphrases
- data and cases (if they did not come
through your own research)
i. One work by one author
If the author's name appears
in the text,
compared reaction times
In a recent
study of reaction times (Walker,
ii. One work by multiple authors
in the text:
Rosen, Gerstman, and Rock (1994)
First next citation in the text:
et al. (1994) found
iii. One work by group as author
Use the name of the group as
Census and Statistics Department
iv. Authors with the same surname
For one work by one author, show
author's initials in all text citation:
R. D. Luce
(1959) and P. A. Luce (1986) also
For one work by multiple authors,
show the first author's initials
in all text citation:
J. M. Goldberg
and Neff (1961) and M. E. Goldberg
and Wurtz (1972) studied
v. Two or more works within the same parenthese
By different authors:
studies (Balda, 1980; Kamil, 1988;
Pepperberg & Funk, 1990)
By the same author:
(Gogel, 1984, 1990)
By the same author in the same
studies (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b,
vi. Specific parts of a source
One specific page:
Buss, 1981, p.332)
More than one page:
Buss, 1981, pp. 332-333)
A specific chapter:
The notes at the foot
of each page are called as footnotes.
The notes at the end of each chapter or
at the end of the paper before other reference
materials are called as endnotes.
But, both formats and functions are the
- Documentation notes
Footnotes or endnotes for reference
documentation is seldom used now. In
APA system, it is replaced by the parenthetical
documentation form. If you would like
to know how to use footnotes or endnotes
for reference documentation, see The
research paper: Process, form, and content
by Roth (1986, chap. 8) or Assignment
and thesis writing by Anderson
and Poole (2001, chap. 11).
- Content notes
However, it remains common to use footnotes
or endnotes for providing additional
content in the text. Such footnotes
or endnotes may:
- include material which is not
strictly relevant to the main argument
while yet is too important to be
- explain, supplement, amplify material
that is included in the main text.
- give cross-reference to other
sections of a paper
The purpose of appendix
is to provide reader with detailed information
which would be distracting to read in
the main body of the paper. Usually, the
information in an appendix is a large
table, a long cross-reference to the text,
a sample of a questionnaire or other survey
instrument used in the research.
If your paper has only
one appendix, you should simply label
it Appendix; if your paper has more than
one appendix, you need to label each one
with a capital letter (Appendix A, Appendix
B, Appendix C, etc.)
4.4. English References
At the end of your paper,
you must provide a reference list in an
alphabetical order by the surname of the
author. If you use the title Bibliography,
you can list out both references cited
in the text and the relevant works which
have been consulted. If you use the title
Reference, you should only list out the
references cited in the text.
i. Book reference
Author's name. (Year).
Title of work. Location: Publisher
ii. A chapter or an article
in an edited book
Author's name. (Year).
Title of chapter or article. In
Editor's name (Ed.), Title of
book (page numbers). Location:
iii. Periodical (e.g.,
Author's name. (Year).
Title of article. Title of periodical,
Volume Number, Page.
iv. Daily newspaper report
Heading of the report
or the article. (year, month and
date). Title of the newspaper,
Sample: Book reference
i. A reference to an
Beck, C. A. J., &
Sales, B. D. (2001). Family
mediation: Facts, myths, and further
prospects. Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association.
ii. Book in new edition (second, third,
Mitchell, T. R., &
Larson, J. R. (1987). People
in organizations: An introduction
to organizational behavior
(3rd ed.). New York:
iii. Edited book
Gibbs, J. T., & Huang,
L.N. (Eds.). (1991). Children
of color: Psychological
interviews with minority youth.
San Francisco: Jossey-bass.
iv. Translated work
Laplave, P.-S. (1951).
A philosophical essay on probabilities
(F. W. Truscott & F. L.
Emory, Trans.). New York: Dover.
(Original work published 1814)
v. Book, group author as publisher
American Bureau of Statistics.
(1991). Estimated resident population
by age and sex in statistical area,
New South Wales, June 1991
(No. 3209.1). Canberra, Australian
Capital Territory: Author
Note. When the author and publisher
are identical, use Author as the same
of the publisher.
Sample: A chapter or an article in an
Bjork, R. A. (1989).
Retrieval inhibition as an adaptive
mechanism in human memory. In H.
L. Roediger III & F. I. M. Craik
(Eds.), Varieties of memory
& consciousness (pp. 309-330).
Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Mellers, B. A. (2000).
Choice and the relative pleasure
of consequences. Psychological
Bulletin, 126, 910-924.
Sample: Daily newspaper report or article
New drug appears to sharply
cut risk of death from heart failure.
(1993, July 15). The Washington
Post, p. A12.