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Proceedings of the International Forum on Shipping, Ports and Airport (IFSPA) 2022

16 – 20 May 2022

Copyright © 2022


Published and printed in Hong Kong.

All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language, in any form or by any means without written authorization from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University.


ISBN: 978-988-12937-1-8


The organizers and editors of this publication assume no responsibility or liability for the statements or opinions expressed in papers or presentations by the contributors to this conference or proceedings.


August 2022


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C.Y. Tung International Centre for Maritime Studies

Department of Logistics and Maritime Studies

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

4/F, CD Wing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong

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Website: https://lms-icms.polyu.edu.hk/