Bachelor of Arts (Hons) in Chinese and Bilingual Studies (BACBS)

[The programme will cease to admit 4-year-curriculum students in 2020-21 (i.e. last cohort of BACBS 4YC students will enter BDLCC as Y1 students in 2019-20), and cease to admit senior-year students in 2022-23 (i.e. last cohort of BACBS senior-year students will enter BACBS in 2021-22).]


The Single Discipline Major Pathway


A BACBS degree requires the accumulation of a minimum of 123 academic credits plus 3 training credits. Apart from 30 GUR credits in Table 1, students need to accumulate another 93 credits by completing

  1. 75 DSR credits plus 3 training credits listed in Table 2, 3 & 4 with at least 21 credits from level-4 subjects, and
  2. 18 elective credits from any academic departments of the University.

However, students have the option of completing all the remaining 18 credits from courses offered within the BACBS programme including subjects listed in Table 4, 5 and 6.


The Major and Minor Pathway


A BACBS award with a Major in CBS and a Minor in a chosen area requires the accumulation of a minimum of 123 academic credits plus 3 training credits. In addition to the 30 GUR credits in Table 1, students need to accumulate another 93 credits by completing

  1. 75 DSR credits plus 3 training credits listed in Table 2, 3 & 4 and
  2. 18 credits by completing six relevant subjects listed in Table 5 (a Japanese Minor) or Table 6 (a Korean Minor) or in any Minor programmes  offered by ANOTHER department at PolyU. Among the 18 minor credits, at least 9 credits should be from subjects at Level 3 or above. A maximum of 6 credits from GUR subjects can be counted toward the Minor with the approval from the Minor-offering department. Under normal circumstances, the GPA of Minor subjects will not factor in the calculation of Major GPA.

Please note that students choosing this option will have to apply for a Minor. If they do not wish to declare a Minor, they should consider taking free electives, thus becoming a Single Discipline Major student (see above section on Single Discipline Major Pathway).


The Double Majors Pathway 


A Double Majors  in Chinese and Bilingual Studies and English Studies for the Professions requires the accumulation of 156 relevant credits plus 3 training credits. Apart from 30 GUR credits in Table 1, students need to complete

  1. 75 DSR credits plus 3 training credits listed in Table 2, 3 & 4;
  2. 51 credits by completing at least 16 subjects (including all the compulsory subjects) offered by ENGL. Students who choose this academic pathway must earn 21 level-4 credits from BACBS plus 21 level-4 credits from BACBS and also 21 level-4 credits from BAESP. Double Major students will be exempted from taking WIE of the second Major.



The subject list is subject to revision. Offering of subjects is subject to the availability of teaching staff and viable enrolment numbers. Some elective subjects will not be offered every year. The Department has the discretion on the offering semester and class quota, which is limited by classroom capacity.

Compulsory Subjects


Subject Code
Subject Title
No of Credits
Table 1: GUR Components (Total credits: 30)
(a) Language and Communication Requirements (9 credits)
English for Effective Communication

The subject, through exposing the students to a variety of illustrative samples and communicative activities in English, aims to provide opportunities for students to understand and examine important principles, functions, processes, types, barriers, and strategies for effective communication in a range of contexts where English is used as the media; apply their knowledge of communication principles, functions, processes, types, barriers and strategies to analysing real-life communication in English for various purposes; and reflect on their own communication activities.

English for Professional Communication
This is a core proficiency subject which explicitly focuses on developing English language proficiency skills as used in the context of professional communication. Students taking this subject will already have advanced-level language skills in listening, speaking, reading and writing. This subject aims to elevate students to an advanced competency level in professional communication.
Chinese for Language Professionals
This subject, to be delivered in tandem with English for Professional Communication, aims to provide generic training on Chinese language and communication and to establish a channel for collaboration between the two for students who plan to study and develop a career in language-related fields. Specifically, students will be introduced to the strategies and skills of Chinese language communication in business and media contexts.
(b) Freshman Seminar (3 credits)
(c) Leadership and Intra-Personal Development (3 credits)
(d) Service-Learning Subject offered by CBS or other departments (3 credits)

(e) Cluster Areas Requirement (CAR)
  • Human nature, relations and development (3 credits)
  • Community, organization and globalization (3 credits)
  • History, culture and world views (3 credits)
  • Science, technology and environment (3 credits)
(f) China Studies Requirement (3 of the 12 CAR subjects)
Note: The student must complete one of the four subjects designated as China-related subjects as described in (e).
(g) Healthy Lifestyle (Non-credit bearing)

Table 2: FH Compulsory Underpinning Subjects (5 subjects, 15 credits)
Introduction to Bilingual Studies
This subject aims to prepare students for their study in the arena of bilingual studies by giving them a basic understanding of the consequences of language in contact with a focus on the phenomena in bilingualism and evolution of translation from an academic perspective.
Introduction to Language
What is special about human language? Is it possible to teach animals to use a language? How many different types of writing systems are there in the world’s languages? How does language influence our thoughts and the way our society works? These are some of the key issues that will be addressed in this subject. The overall goal is to help students understand the nature of human language and its relationship with culture and society. Students will also learn about scientific approaches of analysing language and fundamental areas of linguistics. The subject will be taught with real-life examples, language puzzles and various types of multimedia materials, and is suitable for anyone who is interested in language. Content of this subject will not only facilitate students’ further study of languages and language-related issues, but also help them develop the skills of logical thinking and deduction, which are both essential for other areas of study.
Introduction to English Speaking Cultures
The central objective of the subject is to develop students’ awareness and understanding of key factors that shape contemporary life across English speaking cultures, with special comparative concentration on the UK, Canada, Australia and the USA. The examination of English-speaking cultures is essentially an exercise in critical cultural appreciation but will also serve to underpin and strengthen students’ on-going learning of English and, at the same time, sharpen their perceptions of aspects of their own society.
Anthropology and Language
From the outset, anthropology has established itself as a discipline that studies the 'radical other' within his/her own cultural setting. Through a focus on the embedding of language in culture and society, students completing this course will learn to appreciate and recognize 'the other' as an equally acceptable, if different person, practice, attitude, etc., instead of ethnocentrically judging any difference as 'wrong'.
Table 3: CBS Compulsory Subjects (13 subjects, 42 credits)
A Survey of Modern Chinese
This subject aims to help students to describe and analyze Chinese script, lexical items, phrases and clause types in a systematic way. Another purpose of this subject is to enable students to apply the subject knowledge and generic skills learned in this subject to other subjects on the program and, more importantly, in their future career in terms of both justifying their understanding and to defend their interpretation of Chinese phrases and sentences.
Meaning and its Use in Context
This subject offers a general introduction to semantics and pragmatics, with special focus on empirical findings from English and Chinese. The first part of the course introduces students to some fundamental concepts in the field of semantics, such as the distinction between sentences, utterances, and propositions, sense and reference, referring expressions, lexical relations, and lexical and structural ambiguities. The second part of the course focuses on major topics in the field of pragmatics, such as deixis, presupposition, and implicature. Students will learn how to apply these theories to analyze data in Chinese and English.
Academic and Technical Chinese Writing
This subject aims at training students to master (1) high accuracy with variations in Chinese expressions, (2) effective applications of cognitive methods in presenting contents and thought relationships, and (3) the format and some basic technical devices for writing and presenting an academic paper.
Work Integrated Education (WIE)
This subject is a response to the University’s strategic objective of enhancing the all-round development of students as well as their employability. Through participation in work-integrated education in a professional context with Chinese and/or English as its working language, students will have a valuable opportunity to acquire first-hand experience in an organizational context, apply their academic knowledge and language skills in professional communication as well as develop attributes for all-round development.
Individual and Societal Bilingualism
This subject aims to prepare students for their study of subjects at level three and/or level four in the area of bilingual communication by giving them a general understanding of the development of individual and societal bilingualism, and the consequences of this development from historical, global, local and communicative perspectives.
English for Advanced Academic Writing

This is one of the core English proficiency subject which explicitly focuses on developing students’ academic writing skills. Students taking this subject will already have followed the subjects English for Effective Communication, English for Academic Communication, and will have an advanced level in listening, speaking, reading and writing, in both academic and business contexts. This subject will elevate students to an advanced level in academic writing.

The subject aims to develop students’ advanced literacy skills and a critical understanding of the nature and function of academic discourse in the context of research reports. Students will learn to construct texts that deal with supporting or conflicting points of views on issues of academic and research interest.

Introduction to Translation
This subject will orient students to translation practice in relation to translation principles. Through guided discussions and translation practice, it will equip students with the knowledge and skills applicable to translating various types of texts intended for a general readership, thereby forming the basis for students to develop into specialized areas during their second and third years. Students will also identify the translation problems in relation to cultural issues and learn how to solve these problems.
Symbolic Communication Across Languages

This subject aims to provide a conceptual grounding for students in sign-mediated communication (SiMC) with special reference to its within-culture and between-culture variation as well as its application in corporate communication. Specifically the subject aims to (1) give them a general orientation about the human species as homo symbolicus, (2) develop among them a basic understanding of the nature and the workings of major cultural icons, indices and symbols, from communicative, semiotic perspectives. Wherever appropriate, exemplification will be done with cases taken from the corporate sector in Chinese, and non-Chinese cultures so that students’ cultural outlooks may be broadened and their understanding of the connection between the matter of this subject and corporate communication may be strengthened.

Introduction to Interpreting
The purpose of this subject is to train students to undertake simple interpreting tasks. This subject is also designed to help students build a foundation for the development of essential skills in interpreting between English and Chinese (Cantonese and Mandarin).
Media Language and Communication

This subject presents and explores patterns and issues of media language and communication in relation to the development of modern and pluralistic societies, utilizing conceptual resources from bilingualism and multiculturalism. The students are encouraged to reflect and generalize the use of language and languages in media discursive practice and to apply and extend their critical thinking capacity as well as their bilingual knowledge through analyzing the development of local and foreign media in Hong Kong and the related Cultural China regions.

Translation Studies
This subject aims to equips students who have the ability to understand the factors involved in communication across two languages; who have an awareness of the different levels of meaning in a text; who can use this awareness to evaluate both source texts and their translations; who have an awareness of basic issues concerning translation as a profession. It will also assist students to examine texts and analyze the linguistic and socio-linguistic issues underlying communication across cultures.
Contrastive Analysis of Chinese and English
The primary goal of this subject is to provide you with an overview of the basic principles of contrastive analysis and the linguistic differences between Chinese (Putonghua and Cantonese) and English so that you can practically apply this subject knowledge and analytical skills to solving linguistic problems related to these languages.
Project in Language Studies
The subject provides an arena for students to demonstrate their creative ability and to integrate all they have learnt in linguistics, bilingual corporate communication (BCC), translation/interpreting, area studies, etc. Students will carry out an individual project in one of the above areas during two consecutive semesters, and produce a thesis OR a translation work OR other equivalent forms of academic output deemed as appropriate under the guidance of a supervisor.


Note: ENGL2003 “English for Advanced Academic Writing” and CBS2904 “Academic and Technical Chinese Writing” are double-counting subjects for students who choose the double-major academic pathway, which means the credits earned can not only fulfill the BACBS major requirement, but can also fulfill the BAESP major requirement.

Elective Subjects


Subject Code
Subject Title
No of Credits
Table 4: CBS Elective Subjects
(according to areas, excluding Japanese and Korean within CBS)

Bilingual Corporate Communication
Bilingual Workshop for Verbal and Non-verbal Communication
In the corporate world of Greater China often messages are addressed to audiences of different linguistic and cultural backgrounds, as well as audiences of a different linguistic and cultural mix. This workshop prepares students for the common corporate practice of delivering verbal messages on identical topics to such audiences in the region with appropriate verbal and non-verbal norms. Through a process of practice, review and feedback, students will acquire a better awareness of the within-culture and between-culture variations in verbal and non-verbal communicative norms in Greater China and in its international cities respectively, and develop the necessary skills in addressing different audiences in the region with appropriate norms and without inappropriate inter-cultural, inter-lingual transfers.
Bilingual Workshop for Parallel Text Drafting

Parallel text drafting (PTD) refers to the drafting of a message on an identical topic in different languages, targeting readers from distinct linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The term ‘parallel’ highlights the fact that the versions in Chinese (including Chinese varieties) and English serve similar functions, and that the final drafts are not products of direct translation since PTD does not involve the process of translating from ‘original’ texts.

This subject helps enhance students’ awareness of the within-culture and between-culture variations in corporate communication in Greater China. It provides students with opportunities to practice PTD through various bilingual tasks, and to sharpen their skills of an appropriate and effective use of Chinese and English in major corporate communicative acts for promoting corporate image, strengthening its positing, and projecting its commitment to good corporate citizenship.

Functions of Corporate Communication
This subject, to be delivered in tandem with bilingual workshops that are focused on skills pertaining to corporate communication (CC) functions, aims to provide a conceptual grounding for students who plan to develop a career in communication-related fields in general or in CC in particular. Specifically the subject aims to develop among students a basic understanding of the niche of CC units in the corporate world, and give them an overview of major CC functions, including those of a strategic nature such as corporate identity development and branding.
Bilingual Workshop for Internal Corporate Communication

For Corporate Communication professionals in Hong Kong, it is a common practice that the same message has to be presented in the appropriate language to readers and/or audiences who are either Chinese monoglots, or English monoglots, or Chinese-English bilinguals. This subject is one of the four in the Bilingual Communication Workshop series that attempts to prepare students for this mode of communication in the workplace. It has its primary purpose, in conjunction with the other three workshops and foundation subjects such as ‘Individual and Societal Bilingualism’, in developing students’ appreciation of respectively within-culture and between-culture variation in communicative norms in the corporate context of Greater China particularly, as well as providing them with a quasi-workplace environment in the form of a workshop to put into practice observations that appropriateness in linguistic usage is culture-bound, that communicative norms vary across recipient types, and that negative-transfer of lexical, discourse and syntactic styles will occur if such variations are not observed.

Bilingual Workshop for External Corporate Communication

For Corporate Communication professionals in Hong Kong, it is a common practice that the same message has to be presented in the appropriate language to readers and/or audiences who are either Chinese monoglots, or English monoglots, or Chinese-English bilinguals. This subject is one of the four in the Bilingual Communication Workshop series that attempts to prepare students for the verbal aspect of this mode of communication in the workplace.

It has its primary purpose, vis-à-vis the other three subjects and foundation subjects such as ‘Individual and Societal Bilingualism’, in developing students’ appreciation of respectively within-culture and between-culture variation in communicative norms in the corporate context of Greater China particularly, as well as providing them with a quasi-workplace environment in the form of a workshop to put into practice, particularly in oral communication, observations that appropriateness in linguistic usage is culture-bound, that communicative norms vary across receipt types, and that negative-transfer of lexical, discourse and syntactic styles will occur if such variations are not observed. Specifically, students will conduct corporate communication functions such as community liaison, media relations, mediation between corporate personnel of different cultural backgrounds and identity-promotion projects that demand a high level of sophistication in bilingual communication skills, especially trilingual abilities.

Persuasive Communication in Greater China
Greater China is a political plurality and is multicultural, with policies and practices of communications varying from polity to polity. This subject will provide students with survey, practice, and analysis of various persuasive genres that are relevant to corporate communication in the region. Conceptual resources from persuasion theory as well as comparative discourse studies will be utilized, with focus on the between/within-culture variations in persuasive communication in the region.
Glocalization and Corporate Communication
"Think global and act local" is the axiom for today’s global business communication and management. This subject will provide students with survey, practice, and analysis of the means that Corporate Communication professionals use to enhance the ability of a corporation to achieve global reach and local relevance. Conceptual resources from global communication and cross-cultural competence will be utilized with the hope to further develop the students’ multilingual sensitivity and their multicultural competence which should help them better adapt to their future professional life.
Cultural Signs and Corporate Communication
This subject builds upon what students have learned in ‘Individual & Societal Bilingualism’, ‘Symbolic Communication across Languages’ and ‘Functions of Corporate Communication’ and aims to strengthen students’ grip of sign-mediated communication and its application in strategic corporate-communication functions such as corporate-identity development. Specifically, within a multilingual and cross-cultural framework, students are introduced to how skilled use of corporate names, slogans, logos, sophisticated construction of corporate stories and other non-verbal culture cues and signs may help establish and/or enhance corporate image and identity.
Intercultural Communication
This subject offers a general introduction to the key theories of the field of intercultural communication, language and communication professionals working at the focal point of inter-regional and international encounters. Through an overview of the development of the critical reflections on the functioning of different human societal and professional cultures together in a rapidly globalizing world, our students should become aware of the methods of rational resolution of conflicts and problems as well as acculturation strategies across a wide range of intercultural and socio-cultural contexts. Relevant authentic cases in intercultural communication issues are used for exemplification and for assisting students to learn to come to grips with these issues with the aid of the conceptual resources covered in this subject.
Translation and Interpreting
Translation for Business and Commerce
This subject aims to train students in the practice of translation for business and commercial purposes. Students will be introduced to basic concepts and principles relating to business and commercial translation. Through a variety of hands-on tasks, students will acquire and apply specific strategies and techniques on translational problems in various types of texts in the business/commercial domain. Students will also learn to think critically about ethical issues that professional translators face in the industry.
Translation for the Media
The aim of this subject is to familiarize students with the register and discourse characteristics of the relevant language variety in both English and Chinese media, and to develop and reinforce the skills and techniques required for their translation for the mass media. Specifically, the subject is intended to train students in translating international and local news, magazine articles, promotional materials and advertisements in the print format. They will also learn the principles, techniques and procedures for the translation of subtitles. Emphasis will be laid upon the development of students’ abilities in tackling different forms of translation involving mass media.
Consecutive Interpreting
This subject is designed to consolidate the basic interpreting skills learnt in CBS3802 “Introduction to Interpreting” and further develop students’ interpreting abilities by training them to be able to undertake consecutive interpreting (CI) tasks on general topics in the workplace. In this subject, students will learn some essential CI skills such as note-taking, deverbalization, coping tactics, discourse analysis and comprehension etc. in order to behave professionally in CI. Practice will focus on CI tasks on various contemporary topics between Chinese (Mandarin/ Cantonese) and English.
Translation for Science and Technology
This subject is intended to combine the study of scientific discourse, culture and translation under one roof, so that students can, on the basis of their general translation competence, be prepared for future challenges in specialized translation of scientific and technical texts. It also aims to help students apply general translation theories and techniques to the translation of popular science literature. It acquaints students with the lexical, syntactical and stylistic features of scientific and technical writings in Chinese as opposed to their counterparts in English. The subject cultivates students’ understanding and awareness of the research methodologies embedded in the writings of science as a genre across a variety of disciplines.
Translation for Legal Work

This course is intended to:

1. initiate students to the scope and functions of Chinese-English and English-Chinese translation in the Hong Kong legal framework;

2. acquaint students with the terminology, dictions, formats, and styles usually employed in common legal writings;

3. help students identify the legal meanings of common words in the legal context;

4. enable students to understand the characteristics of legal language; and

5. familiarise students with and help them to grasp the basic principles, strategies, methods and techniques for legal translation, and to enable them to generate acceptable translations of legal documents for the local legal sector.

Introduction to Literary Translation

This subject introduces various methods of translation appropriate to a wide variety of genres, including drama, fiction, and nonfiction prose. Subject activities include the evaluation and comparison of published translations; original translation of various texts; and discussion and revision of student translations.

Texts for translation will include classic stories and poems, and also some contemporary work.

The subject introduces both Chinese-English and English-Chinese literary translation, aiming to improve bilingual competency

Simultaneous Interpreting
This subject will provide students with an understanding of the nature of simultaneous interpreting (SI) as a profession and equips them with basic skills of performing SI between Chinese (Mandarin and Cantonese) and English.
Machine Aided Translation

This subject aims to help students acquire fundamental knowledge and useful skills in the application of computer tools and resources for Chinese, English and multilingual translation. In addition to computer assisted human translation, students will also learn to take advantage of automatic computer translation by effective editing of source and target texts. More attention is given to advanced translation technology rather than elementary and general-purpose computer skills.

Great Works in Chinese Literature
This course focuses on the distinctive works of Chinese literature and introduces students to the background knowledge of these works. It also enables students to evaluate and appreciate these masterpieces. While briefly introducing the development of Chinese literature, this subject has special focus on prose, verse, and fiction in a systematic approach to enable students to acquire reading ability in Classical and modern Chinese by familiarizing them with artistic techniques of Chinese literature through a critical study of selected literary masterworks.
Contemporary Chinese Society through Literature
The objective of the course is to introduce the phenomena of Chinese contemporary literature in the last 40 years. It aims at guiding students to read and discuss works that are most socially influential in reflecting the contemporary social landscape and life of that literary period and to understand the literary characteristics and ideological trend of that period through a blend of literary criticism and social observation, combined with theories of literary criticism. Through historical accounts, specific context and narration and dialogue forms in literature, students will learn about modern China after the Reform and Opening-up policy sensitively, and will have a grasp on issues such as the political and historical background of contemporary society in China, the characteristics of modern Chinese society’s integration, as well as the social phenomena, ideology, values and aesthetic sense in the course of economic development, and pay special attention to the major social crises and new domestic problems that are facing modern Chinese society. At the same time, the course aims at raising the standard in literary appreciation and criticism of language teachers, and to improve their capabilities in teaching contemporary Chinese literature, China’s national conditions and Chinese culture.
Comparative Rhetoric
Assuming no prior knowledge in rhetoric, this subject attempts to acquaint the students with the major content of modern rhetorical studies from both theoretical and applied perspectives. Data analysis will be made in both English and Chinese on a comparative basis. Besides discussions on figures of speech, additional considerations will be given to argumentation structures, cognitive rhetorical studies and macro-rhetorical issues.
Linguistics and Speech Sciences
Psycholinguistics studies the psychological and neurobiological factors that allow humans to acquire, understand and produce language. In this subject you will survey common techniques used in psycholinguistics and the kinds of research questions that are under investigation in this field. A major focus on the subject is on the interpretation, design, and implementation of psycholinguistic experiments; over the course of the semester you will discuss real psycholinguistic experiments and plan and carry out your own experiments.
Language, Cognition and the Brain

Language is a most important trait that distinguishes humans from animals. What biological factors make human language possible? What neural processes underlie language processing? Which part of the brain supports the production and comprehension of language? How do disorders disrupt these processes?

This subject provides an overview of the cognitive and neural processes that are critical for the production and comprehension of language, and the influence of language disorders on those processes. It will help students to develop an understanding of diverse topics including brain models of language processing, language development, and language disorders. An emphasis will be placed on the Chinese language such as Cantonese and Mandarin.

Language Acquisition
Humans are born with an innate capacity to learn language. Can animals learn language? How do children learn their mother tongue? What happens when children learn two languages at the same time? Why are some learners more successful than the others in learning a second language? The objective of this subject is to introduce to students how linguists and psycholinguists address questions such as the above in the area of language learning and development. The subject is also geared towards the local community -- Hong Kong context, covering topics such as: (i) learning Cantonese as a first language; (ii) learning Cantonese and English as two first languages; and (iii) learning English and Mandarin as second languages.
Sounds of Language
This subject aims to provide students with the practical skills and theoretical knowledge to pursue further study in phonetics and phonology. It will introduce students to the basic concepts in articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics, and speech perception with special reference to the sounds of English, Cantonese, and Putonghua. Students will also have hands-on experience with transcribing with the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), analyzing speech sounds using computer softwares, and doing linguistic analysis with the sound system of a language.
Programming and Data Analysis for Language Studies

This subject introduces the use of programming and data analysis techniques in language studies. Students will learn about the fundamentals of text processing with open-source packages in Python and the general ideas of major NLP (natural language processing) tasks. Students will also be familiarized with the conceptualization and compilation of linguistic corpora, as well as the use of corpora in computational linguistics. Furthermore, the course will also introduce R (and RStudio) as tools of data analysis and visualization, with a special focus on the analysis and reporting of language data.

Varieties of Written Chinese
This subject aims to help students to apply their linguistic knowledge to solve problems in the use of written Chinese, with particular reference to the Hong Kong situation. With Hong Kong’s biliteracy and trilingualism as the background, students will study language use in Hong Kong written media and examine the vocabulary, the sentence pattern and the discourse of Hong Kong written Chinese. They will also examine the linguistic differences between the written Chinese in mainland China and that in Hong Kong.
Analysis of Cantonese
This subject introduces students to the linguistic structures of Cantonese including phonetics/phonology, syntax, and semantics in a principled manner. It enables students to make generalizations from complicated natural Cantonese data and utilize their language intuition to make logical judgment. The subject also develops students’ awareness and understanding of the socio-cultural aspects embedded in the language that enhance their global outlook and cultural appreciation.
Language and Society
This subject provides a comprehensive introduction to sociolinguistics, with special focus on language variation and language change in multilingual and multicultural societies. The first part of the subject deals with language variation according to users, covering topics such as regional and social dialects as well as variation by gender and age. It further explores the factors that contribute to language change. The second part of the subject deals with language variation according to use. Topics include face and politeness, language and cognition, stylistic variation, and language attitudes.
Child Communication Disorders and Special Education Needs (DSLR English)

This course will introduce to participant the causes and profiles of individuals with different communication disorders in children with special education needs. The course will introduce (1) speech delay and disorders; (2) developmental language and literacy disorders; (3) specific language impairments; (4) management of communication disorders in children with special education needs.

This course also aims at training students to master high accuracy English academic writing, including but not limited to literature review with proper citations, reporting data in scientific way, and interpretation of findings with reference to literatures.

Communication Disorders Across the Life Span

This course will introduce to participant the causes, profiles and management of individuals with different communication disorders across the life span. The course will introduce (1) the biological basis of the hearing function; (2) language disorders secondary to hearing impairment, cleft lip and palate, and cerebral palsy; (3) voice disorders; (4) neurogenic communication disorders.

Language and Speech Production: Anatomical and Physiological Perspectives
By completing this subject using a systemic and regional approach in teaching and learning, students will be able to demonstrate a systematic understanding of the structure and function of the human body.
Techniques in Language Sciences

Language is not only a system of abstract symbols and grammatical rules. With proper techniques, language can be observed in real time during the production and perception of individuals.

This subject provides an overview of the techniques and instruments that can be used to capture and describe the articulation, physical properties, perception and brain activities of language in real time. It will introduce the students to diverse techniques and software (e.g., Electroglottograph, Nasometer, Praat, E-Prime and Electroencephalograph) and how to apply these techniques and software to the study of language. Students will be offered hands-on experience of learning to use these techniques.

Statistics for Language Studies

Statistical methods are used in the subfields of linguistics extensively, which helps linguists to discover language structures and patterns in processing languages. This is an introductory course to statistical analysis used in language studies. This course includes fundamental concepts in statistics, methods of descriptive and inferential statistics with application in analyzing quantitative linguistic data and solving linguistic problems.

In particular, we focus on experimental designs, simple linear regression, hypothesis testing and statistical modeling of linguistic data. It offers hands-on experience with statistical analysis software, and provides students with theoretical background in statistics enough to understand the software output, and make a critical review of the results in a qualitative study. Students are also trained to report statistical results of linguistic data for their own projects.

Table 5: Elective Subjects in Japanese Minor Offered by CBS
Table 6: Elective Subjects in Korean Minor Offered by CBS